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The Carmarthenshire Battalion was one of the early units raised in 1914 as a result of Lord Kitchener's expansion of the regular army by 500,000 men for the duration of the Great War. Lloyd George, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, had a vision of a Welsh Army Group and massive efforts were made to recruit and form Welsh fighting units. The first 200 recruits for the Carmarthen Pals came from Bolton, strangely enough, but later they were mainly drawn from the County and wider Wales. Initial training was at Rhyl. In April 1915 the Battalion became part of 114 Brigade, 38 (Welsh) Division and after completing training and equipping it crossed to France in December 1915. From early 1916 until the Armistice the Carmathen Pals fought with distinction. Initially at Givency, it moved to the Somme in May 1916 and attacked Mametz Wood in the early days of that most terrible July offensive. Thereafter the Battalion moved to the Ypres Salient and in July 1917 attacked Pilckem Ridge. Moves south to Armentieres district, then the Albert Sector followed.
Throughout the First World War the vicar of St Michael's in Derby, a largely working-class parish, encouraged men who had joined up to write of their experiences for the parish magazine. The resulting letters form a remarkable record of the hopes and fears, as well as the day-to-day lives, of these men. All volunteers, most served in the ranks of their local county regiment, seeing action on the Western Front, in Greece, Palestine and South Africa. The letters, edited here with an introduction, biographical notes and photographs, bring to life the horrors of the Great War with a stark authenticity that only comes from first-hand accounts. These are not polished literary compositions written for publication by the well-known authors and war poets of the period, most of whom served as officers, but the hasty scribbles, full of fear and emotion, the feelings of ordinary men who fought in the trenches of France and Flanders, suffered the heat and dust of India, or the struggled to survive the disease-ridden campaigns of Salonika and East Africa.
What happened to history’s refugees?
People have been forced to leave their countries since the very notion of a country was created. We take a look at some of the largest human movements in history to find out why people left their homes, where they went and what became of them.
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Canaan • 740 BC
When Assyrian rulers conquered the land of ancient Israel, 10 of the legendary 12 tribes were expelled from these lands. How many there were, and where they ended up remains a subject of highly contentious historical and religious debate.
Edict of Fontainebleau
France • 1685
When Louis XIV of France issued an edict that meant the Huguenots risked state persecution if they practised their Protestant faith freely, he created one of the first recognised displacements of a people across nation states. Their exact number isn’t known, but historians estimate that around 200,000 fled their homes over the next 20 years, around a quarter of them coming to England and the rest settling in the Netherlands, Germany, especially Prussia, Switzerland, Scandinavia, and Russia.
French Huguenots land at Dover, fleeing to Britain when Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes and sets out to stamp out protestantism in France.
Those that remained in France faced continued injustice - from having their marriages, and consequently their children, delegitimised by the state, to having their churches burnt down. Those that left made new lives for themselves abroad, many arriving penniless but with profitable business skills.
Ottoman Empire • 1783
In the space of 150 years, 5 to 7 million Muslims arrived from other countries in what is today Turkey. From the 750,000 Bulgarians who left during the Russo-Turkish war (about a quarter of whom died on the way) to the 15,000 Turkish-Cypriots who left the island after it was leased to Great Britain - Turkey experienced a radical transformation as Muslims from Caucasus, Crimea, Crete, Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia arrived. Their descendants remain there, accounting for one in three people in Turkey today.
Russia • 1881
The assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881 unleashed a wave of brutal anti-Jewish sentiment in Russia. A weak economy and an irresponsible press that encouraged the notion of the Jew as the enemy resulted in rioting and widespread attacks on Jewish homes that were to last three years. Almost two decades later, latent prejudice was revealed again when Jews once again found themselves the subject of attack, this time a much bloodier one that left thousands dead. Their treatment prompted a mass exodus of some 2 million Jews towards the UK, US and elsewhere in Europe.
World War I
Europe • 1914
World War I marked a rupture in Europe’s recent experience of refugees. During the German invasion of Belgium, massacres of thousands of civilians and the destruction of buildings led to an exodus of more than a million people. Almost a quarter of them came to England, where the British government had offered "victims of war the hospitality of the British nation". Most Belgian refugees returned to Belgium at the end of World War I despite having having been able to assimilate smoothly in the UK.
Belgium was not the only refugee crisis to emerge from World War I. After Austria-Hungary declared war on, and subsequently invaded Serbia, tens of thousands of Serbians were forced to leave their homes.
Some of the largest atrocities committed during and after World War I were directed at the Armenians. The population of 2 million was decimated by what was later recognised as the first genocide of the 20th century. Systematic persecution under the Ottoman empire meant that half of that population were dead by 1918 and hundreds of thousands were homeless and stateless refugees. Today, the Armenian diaspora is around 5 million in number, while there are just 3.3 million in what is today the republic of Armenia.
World War II
Europe • 1945
The historic movements of people during the first world war would pale in comparison some 27 years later when World War II broke out. By the time it ended, there would be more than 40 million refugees in Europe alone. The scale of the disaster was such that international law and international organisations tasked to deal with refugees were urgently created and quickly evolved to become the foundation that is still relied upon today.
1938: Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees was created to facilitate a more co-ordinated approach to the resettlement of refugees
1943: United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
1946: International Refugee Organisation created
1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1949: Geneva conventions - a series of four treaties (subsequently followed by three additional protocols) that set out in international law what is humanitarian conduct during armed conflict, including the treatment of civilians.
1950: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was established
1951: Convention relating to the Status of Refugees became the corner stone of international law on refugees.
Even before the war’s end, thousands of Germans began to flee Eastern Europe. Most of those that remained were forcibly removed. In Czechoslovakia, more than 2 million were dumped over the country’s border. In Poland, Germans were rounded up before being removed by authorities. In Romania, around 400,000 Germans left their homes while Yugoslavia was virtually emptied of its 500,000-strong German community.
Palestine • 1948
Nowhere are numbers on refugees more contentious than the 1948 Palestinian exodus. An attack by a Zionist military group on an Arab village realised the Palestinians’ worst fears and combined with Zionist expulsion orders, military advances, virtually non-existent Palestinian leadership and unwillingness to live under Jewish control on their homeland. The result was a mass exodus of around 80% of Arabs on the land that was to become Israel. Later absentees property law in Israel would prevent the return of those Arabs. Nakba, meaning "catastrophe" is commemorated on 15 May each year. The UN set up a special agency, UNRWA, to deal with the enormous numbers of refugees requiring assistance that now number around 5 million.
Idi Amin’s Order
Uganda • 1972President Amin’s announcement was covered in the British press, though its consequences were underestimated Photograph: Guardian archive 7 Aug 1972
In August 1972, General Idi Amin, then military ruler of Uganda, accused Asians resident in the country of being "bloodsuckers" and gave them 90 days to leave the country. Since Amin seized power in a military coup in 1971, he had increasingly spread propaganda about the country’s minorities, focusing on the Indian and Pakistani communities. Many of them had lived in the country for more than 100 years.
Of the approximately 90,000 Asians who were expelled, around 50,000 came to the UK. A small proportion went to India and some of the Indian Muslim community left for Canada. This wealthy group, which had a large stake in Uganda’s economy, had all of their assets confiscated, bank accounts closed, jewellery stolen. The 5,000-6,000 companies belonging to Uganda’s Asians were reallocated among government bodies and individuals.
There remain around 12,000 Indians in Uganda today.
Afghanistan • 1979
Afghanistan could be said to have had a refugee "crisis" as far back as 1979 when the Soviet Union occupied the country, sending as many as 5 million fleeing. The largest group ended up in Pakistan (they and their descendants number more than 1.5 million today). Repatriation rates have increased over the past decade.
Since 1990 the number of refugees each year has not fallen below 2 million as the chart below showing refugees originating from Afghanistan demonstrates - a sizeable fraction of the country’s 34 million people.
Those who return do so to face a changed country. From knowing where mines are to understanding what their legal rights are, many former refugees may feel alien in what was once their homes.
Balkans • 1992The Guardian describes a "10-mile convoy of 200 buses and some 1,000 other vehicles" attempting to escape Sarajevo. Image: Guardian, 19 May 1992
The Bosnian war of 1992-1995 left 200,000 dead and forced 2.7 million more to flee - making it the largest displacement of people in Europe since the second world war. Half of Bosnia’s entire population were displaced. Tens of thousands were taken in by western nations, chief among them the US and Germany. Hundreds of thousands of Serbs were also displaced by the Yugoslav wars - an estimated 700,000 sought refuge in Serbia.
Throughout the Balkans more than 2.5 million people have returned home. But more than two decades on, the UN is still attempting to provide 620,000 refugees and internally displaced people in the region with the assistance they need.
Great Lakes Refugee Crisis
Rwanda • 1994
In the aftermath of the genocidal mass slaughter in 1994 of more than 500,000 Tutsis by Hutus in Rwanda, there was a mass exodus of more than 2 million people from the country to neighbouring countries. Many settled in massive camps containing tens of thousands of people where mortality rates were exceptionally high. The camps became increasingly militarised and contributed to the escalation of further conflict in the region.
War in Darfur
Sudan • 2003
When war broke out in the Darfur region of Sudan, it brought with it the deaths of 200,000 and the mass displacement of more than 2.5 million people from their homes. Innovations in helped to show why they left - more than 3,300 villages had been destroyed by 2009.
Today, more than 2.6 million IDPs remain in Darfur while more than 250,000 are living in refugee camps in Chad alone.
Iraq • 2003
Refugees have been a humanitarian issue for Iraq since its war with Iran in the 1980s, but the 2003 invasion resulted in a huge increase in their number. The UN estimates that today 4.7 million Iraqis have left their homes (around 1 in 6 Iraqis), more than 2 million of whom left the country altogether. Most settled in neighbouring Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, living without the protection of refugee laws in those countries and, in the case of Syria, facing renewed violence. As a result, some have started to return to Iraq and have been joined by Syrians attempting to escape the same conflict.
One of the least reported major refugee crises in the world, Colombia has witnessed millions leaving their homes - but they do not count as refugees because they have not crossed an international boundary. Colombia’s low-level conflict started in the 60s and over the decades, the UN estimates that almost 4 million have left their homes, almost 10% of the population. Only 400,000 of these have been able to leave the country, and the migration crisis has not attracted the attention of the international community that many argue it warrants.
Syrian civil war
Syria • 2011
What started as protests not unlike those that had been seen in other Arab countries has degenerated into a civil war stalemate. To find out more about how many Syrians have become refugees and read Syrians’ own stories of their displacement, follow the link to our special reports.
Though it’s thelatest chapter in history’s biggest refugee movements, it is unlikely to be the last.
Quality in The Industrial Revolution
Until the early 19th century, manufacturing in the industrialized world tended to follow this craftsmanship model. The factory system, with its emphasis on product inspection, started in Great Britain in the mid-1750s and grew into the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s. American quality practices evolved in the 1800s as they were shaped by changes in predominant production methods.
In the early 19th century, manufacturing in the United States tended to follow the craftsmanship model used in the European countries. Since most craftsmen sold their goods locally, each had a tremendous personal stake in meeting customers&rsquo needs for quality. If quality needs weren&rsquot met, the craftsman ran the risk of losing customers not easily replaced. Therefore, masters maintained a form of quality control by inspecting goods before sale.
The Factory System
The factory system, a product of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, began to divide the craftsmen&rsquos trades into specialized tasks. This forced craftsmen to become factory workers and forced shop owners to become production supervisors, and marked an initial decline in employees&rsquo sense of empowerment and autonomy in the workplace. Quality in the factory system was ensured through the skill of laborers supplemented by audits and/or inspections. Defective products were either reworked or scrapped.
The Taylor System
Late in the 19th century the United States broke further from European tradition and adopted a new management approach developed by Frederick W. Taylor, whose goal was to increase productivity without increasing the number of skilled craftsmen. He achieved this by assigning factory planning to specialized engineers and by using craftsmen and supervisors as inspectors and managers who executed the engineers&rsquo plans.
Taylor&rsquos approach led to remarkable rises in productivity, but the new emphasis on productivity had a negative effect on quality. To remedy the quality decline, factory managers created inspection departments to keep defective products from reaching customers.
Review: Volume 38 - First World War - History
Timeline of Events
December 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway.
December 8, 1941 - U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand.
December 9, 1941 - China declares war on Japan.
December 10, 1941 - Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam.
December 11, 1941 - Japanese invade Burma.
December 15, 1941 - First Japanese merchant ship sunk by a U.S. submarine.
December 16, 1941 - Japanese invade British Borneo.
December 18, 1941 - Japanese invade Hong Kong.
December 22, 1941 - Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines.
December 23, 1941 - General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan Japanese take Wake Island.
December 25, 1941 - British surrender at Hong Kong.
December 26, 1941 - Manila declared an open city.
December 27, 1941 - Japanese bomb Manila.
Map of the Japanese Empire at its peak in 1942.
January 2, 1942 - Manila and U.S. Naval base at Cavite captured by the Japanese.
January 7, 1942 - Japanese attack Bataan in the Philippines.
January 11, 1942 - Japanese invade Dutch East Indies and Dutch Borneo.
January 16, 1942 - Japanese begin an advance into Burma.
January 18, 1942 - German-Japanese-Italian military agreement signed in Berlin.
January 19, 1942 - Japanese take North Borneo.
January 23, 1942 - Japanese take Rabaul on New Britain in the Solomon Islands and also invade Bougainville, the largest island.
January 27, 1942 - First Japanese warship sunk by a U.S. submarine.
January 30/31 - The British withdraw into Singapore. The siege of Singapore then begins.
February 1, 1942 - First U.S. aircraft carrier offensive of the war as YORKTOWN and ENTERPRISE conduct air raids on Japanese bases in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands.
February 2, 1942 - Japanese invade Java in the Dutch East Indies.
February 8/9 - Japanese invade Singapore.
February 14, 1942 - Japanese invade Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies.
February 15, 1942 - British surrender at Singapore.
February 19, 1942 - Largest Japanese air raid since Pearl Harbor occurs against Darwin, Australia Japanese invade Bali.
February 20, 1942 - First U.S. fighter ace of the war, Lt. Edward O'Hare from the LEXINGTON in action off Rabaul.
February 22, 1942 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General MacArthur out of the Philippines.
February 23, 1942 - First Japanese attack on the U.S. mainland as a submarine shells an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California.
February 24, 1942 - ENTERPRISE attacks Japanese on Wake Island.
February 26, 1942 - First U.S. carrier, the LANGLEY, is sunk by Japanese bombers.
February 27- March 1 - Japanese naval victory in the Battle of the Java Sea as the largest U.S. warship in the Far East, the HOUSTON, is sunk.
March 4, 1942 - Two Japanese flying boats bomb Pearl Harbor ENTERPRISE attacks Marcus Island, just 1000 miles from Japan.
March 7, 1942 - British evacuate Rangoon in Burma Japanese invade Salamaua and Lae on New Guinea.
March 8, 1942 - The Dutch on Java surrender to Japanese.
March 11, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur leaves Corregidor and is flown to Australia. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright becomes the new U.S. commander.
March 18, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur appointed commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater by President Roosevelt.
March 18, 1942 - War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. Despite the internment, over 17,000 Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in World War II in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history.
March 23, 1942 - Japanese invade the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal.
March 24, 1942 - Admiral Chester Nimitz appointed as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific theater.
April 3, 1942 - Japanese attack U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan.
April 6, 1942 - First U.S. troops arrive in Australia.
April 9, 1942 - U.S. forces on Bataan surrender unconditionally to the Japanese.
April 10, 1942 - Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths.
April 18, 1942 - Surprise U.S. 'Doolittle' B-25 air raid from the HORNET against Tokyo boosts Allied morale.
April 29, 1942 - Japanese take central Burma.
May 1, 1942 - Japanese occupy Mandalay in Burma.
May 3, 1942 - Japanese take Tulagi in the Solomon Islands.
May 5, 1942 - Japanese prepare to invade Midway and the Aleutian Islands.
May 6, 1942 - Japanese take Corregidor as Gen. Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. And Filipino forces in the Philippines.
May 7-8, 1942 - Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of the Coral Sea off New Guinea - the first time in history that two opposing carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other.
May 12, 1942 - The last U.S. Troops holding out in the Philippines surrender on Mindanao.
May 20, 1942 - Japanese complete the capture of Burma and reach India.
June 4-5, 1942 - Turning point in the war occurs with a decisive victory for the U.S. against Japan in the Battle of Midway as squadrons of U.S. torpedo planes and dive bombers from ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack and destroy four Japanese carriers, a cruiser, and damage another cruiser and two destroyers. U.S. loses YORKTOWN.
June 7, 1942 - Japanese invade the Aleutian Islands.
June 9, 1942 - Japanese postpone further plans to take Midway.
July 21, 1942 - Japanese land troops near Gona on New Guinea.
August 7, 1942 - The first U.S. amphibious landing of the Pacific War occurs as 1st Marine Division invades Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
August 8, 1942 - U.S. Marines take the unfinished airfield on Guadalcanal and name it Henderson Field after Maj. Lofton Henderson, a hero of Midway.
August 8/9 - A major U.S. naval disaster off Savo Island, north of Guadalcanal, as eight Japanese warships wage a night attack and sink three U.S. heavy cruisers, an Australian cruiser, and one U.S. destroyer, all in less than an hour. Another U.S. cruiser and two destroyers are damaged. Over 1,500 Allied crewmen are lost.
August 17, 1942 - 122 U.S. Marine raiders, transported by submarine, attack Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands.
August 21, 1942 - U.S. Marines repulse first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal.
August 24, 1942 - U.S. And Japanese carriers meet in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons resulting in a Japanese defeat.
August 29, 1942 - The Red Cross announces Japan refuses to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U.S. POWs.
August 30, 1942 - U.S. Troops invade Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands.
September 9/10 - A Japanese floatplane flies two missions dropping incendiary bombs on U.S. forests in the state of Oregon - the only bombing of the continental U.S. during the war. Newspapers in the U.S. voluntarily withhold this information.
September 12-14 - Battle of Bloody Ridge on Guadalcanal.
September 15, 1942 - A Japanese submarine torpedo attack near the Solomon Islands results in the sinking of the Carrier WASP, Destroyer O'BRIEN and damage to the Battleship NORTH CAROLINA.
September 27, 1942 - British offensive in Burma.
October 11/12 - U.S. cruisers and destroyers defeat a Japanese task force in the Battle of Cape Esperance off Guadalcanal.
October 13, 1942 - The first U.S. Army troops, the 164th Infantry Regiment, land on Guadalcanal.
October 14/15 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night from warships then send troops ashore onto Guadalcanal in the morning as U.S. planes attack.
October 15/17 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships.
October 18, 1942 - Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign.
October 26, 1942 - Battle of Santa Cruz off Guadalcanal between U.S. And Japanese warships results in the loss of the Carrier HORNET.
November 14/15 - U.S. And Japanese warships clash again off Guadalcanal resulting in the sinking of the U.S. Cruiser JUNEAU and the deaths of the five Sullivan brothers.
November 23/24 - Japanese air raid on Darwin, Australia.
November 30 - Battle of Tasafaronga off Guadalcanal.
December 2, 1942 - Enrico Fermi conducts the world's first nuclear chain reaction test at the University of Chicago.
December 20-24 - Japanese air raids on Calcutta, India.
December 31, 1942 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives permission to his troops to withdraw from Guadalcanal after five months of bloody fighting against U.S. Forces
January 2, 1943 - Allies take Buna in New Guinea.
January 22, 1943 - Allies defeat Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea.
February 1, 1943 - Japanese begin evacuation of Guadalcanal.
February 8, 1943 - British-Indian forces begin guerrilla operations against Japanese in Burma.
February 9, 1943 - Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ends.
March 2-4 - U.S. victory over Japanese in the Battle of Bismarck Sea.
April 18, 1943 - U.S. code breakers pinpoint the location of Japanese Admiral Yamamoto flying in a Japanese bomber near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Eighteen P-38 fighters then locate and shoot down Yamamoto.
April 21, 1943 - President Roosevelt announces the Japanese have executed several airmen from the Doolittle Raid.
April 22, 1943 - Japan announces captured Allied pilots will be given "one way tickets to hell."
May 10, 1943 - U.S. Troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands.
May 14, 1943 - A Japanese submarine sinks the Australian hospital ship CENTAUR resulting in 299 dead.
May 31, 1943 - Japanese end their occupation of the Aleutian Islands as the U.S. completes the capture of Attu.
June 1, 1943 - U.S. begins submarine warfare against Japanese shipping.
June 21, 1943 - Allies advance to New Georgia, Solomon Islands.
July 8, 1943 - B-24 Liberators flying from Midway bomb Japanese on Wake Island.
August 1/2 - A group of 15 U.S. PT-boats attempt to block Japanese convoys south of Kolombangra Island in the Solomon Islands. PT-109, commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, is rammed and sunk by the Japanese Cruiser AMAGIRI, killing two and badly injuring others. The crew survives as Kennedy aids one badly injured man by towing him to a nearby atoll.
August 6/7, 1943 - Battle of Vella Gulf in the Solomon Islands.
August 25, 1943 - Allies complete the occupation of New Georgia.
September 4, 1943 - Allies recapture Lae-Salamaua, New Guinea.
October 7, 1943 - Japanese execute approximately 100 American POWs on Wake Island.
October 26, 1943 - Emperor Hirohito states his country's situation is now "truly grave."
November 1, 1943 - U.S. Marines invade Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
November 2, 1943 - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay.
November 20, 1943 - U.S. Troops invade Makin and Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands.
November 23, 1943 - Japanese end resistance on Makin and Tarawa.
December 15, 1943 - U.S. Troops land on the Arawe Peninsula of New Britain in the Solomon Islands.
December 26, 1943 - Full Allied assault on New Britain as 1st Division Marines invade Cape Gloucester.
January 9, 1944 - British and Indian troops recapture Maungdaw in Burma.
January 31, 1944 - U.S. Troops invade Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands.
February 1-7, 1944 - U.S. Troops capture Kwajalein and Majura Atolls in the Marshall Islands.
February 17/18 - U.S. Carrier-based planes destroy the Japanese naval base at Truk in the Caroline Islands.
February 20, 1944 - U.S. Carrier-based and land-based planes destroy the Japanese base at Rabaul.
February 23, 1944 - U.S. Carrier-based planes attack the Mariana Islands.
February 24, 1944 - Merrill's Marauders begin a ground campaign in northern Burma.
March 5, 1944 - Gen. Wingate's groups begin operations behind Japanese lines in Burma.
March 15, 1944 - Japanese begin offensive toward Imphal and Kohima.
April 17, 1944 - Japanese begin their last offensive in China, attacking U.S. air bases in eastern China.
April 22, 1944 - Allies invade Aitape and Hollandia in New Guinea.
May 27, 1944 - Allies invade Biak Island, New Guinea.
June 5, 1944 - The first mission by B-29 Superfortress bombers occurs as 77 planes bomb Japanese railway facilities at Bangkok, Thailand.
June 15, 1944 - U.S. Marines invade Saipan in the Mariana Islands.
June 15/16 - The first bombing raid on Japan since the Doolittle raid of April 1942, as 47 B-29s based in Bengel, India, target the steel works at Yawata.
June 19, 1944 - The "Marianas Turkey Shoot" occurs as U.S. Carrier-based fighters shoot down 220 Japanese planes, while only 20 American planes are lost.
July 8, 1944 - Japanese withdraw from Imphal.
July 19, 1944 - U.S. Marines invade Guam in the Marianas.
July 24, 1944 - U.S. Marines invade Tinian.
July 27, 1944 - American troops complete the liberation of Guam.
August 3, 1944 - U.S. And Chinese troops take Myitkyina after a two month siege.
August 8, 1944 - American troops complete the capture of the Mariana Islands.
September 15, 1944 - U.S. Troops invade Morotai and the Paulaus.
October 11, 1944 - U.S. Air raids against Okinawa.
October 18, 1944 - Fourteen B-29s based on the Marianas attack the Japanese base at Truk.
October 20, 1944 - U.S. Sixth Army invades Leyte in the Philippines.
October 23-26 - Battle of Leyte Gulf results in a decisive U.S. Naval victory.
October 25, 1944 - The first suicide air (Kamikaze) attacks occur against U.S. warships in Leyte Gulf. By the end of the war, Japan will have sent an estimated 2,257 aircraft. "The only weapon I feared in the war," Adm. Halsey will say later.
November 11, 1944 - Iwo Jima bombarded by the U.S. Navy.
November 24, 1944 - Twenty four B-29s bomb the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo.
December 15, 1944 - U.S. Troops invade Mindoro in the Philippines.
December 17, 1944 - The U.S. Army Air Force begins preparations for dropping the Atomic Bomb by establishing the 509th Composite Group to operate the B-29s that will deliver the bomb.
January 3, 1945 - Gen. MacArthur is placed in command of all U.S. ground forces and Adm. Nimitz in command of all naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan itself.
January 4, 1945 - British occupy Akyab in Burma.
January 9, 1945 - U.S. Sixth Army invades Lingayen Gulf on Luzon in the Philippines.
January 11, 1945 - Air raid against Japanese bases in Indochina by U.S. Carrier-based planes.
January 28, 1945 - The Burma road is reopened.
February 3, 1945 - U.S. Sixth Army attacks Japanese in Manila.
February 16, 1945 - U.S. Troops recapture Bataan in the Philippines.
February 19, 1945 - U.S. Marines invade Iwo Jima.
March 1, 1945 - A U.S. submarine sinks a Japanese merchant ship loaded with supplies for Allied POWs, resulting in a court martial for the captain of the submarine, since the ship had been granted safe passage by the U.S. Government.
March 2, 1945 - U.S. airborne troops recapture Corregidor in the Philippines.
March 3, 1945 - U.S. And Filipino troops take Manila.
March 9/10 - Fifteen square miles of Tokyo erupts in flames after it is fire bombed by 279 B-29s.
March 10, 1945 - U.S. Eighth Army invades Zamboanga Peninsula on Mindanao in the Philippines.
March 20, 1945 - British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.
March 27, 1945 - B-29s lay mines in Japan's Shimonoseki Strait to interrupt shipping.
April 1, 1945 - The final amphibious landing of the war occurs as the U.S. Tenth Army invades Okinawa.
April 7, 1945 - B-29s fly their first fighter-escorted mission against Japan with P-51 Mustangs based on Iwo Jima U.S. Carrier-based fighters sink the super battleship YAMATO and several escort vessels which planned to attack U.S. Forces at Okinawa.
April 12, 1945 - President Roosevelt dies, succeeded by Harry S. Truman.
May 8, 1945 - Victory in Europe Day.
May 20, 1945 - Japanese begin withdrawal from China.
May 25, 1945 - U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff approve Operation Olympic, the invasion of Japan, scheduled for November 1.
June 9, 1945 - Japanese Premier Suzuki announces Japan will fight to the very end rather than accept unconditional surrender.
June 18, 1945 - Japanese resistance ends on Mindanao in the Philippines.
June 22, 1945 - Japanese resistance ends on Okinawa as the U.S. Tenth Army completes its capture.
June 28, 1945 - MacArthur's headquarters announces the end of all Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
July 5, 1945 - Liberation of Philippines declared.
July 10, 1945 - 1,000 bomber raids against Japan begin.
July 14, 1945 - The first U.S. Naval bombardment of Japanese home islands.
July 16, 1945 - First Atomic Bomb is successfully tested in the U.S.
July 26, 1945 - Components of the Atomic Bomb "Little Boy" are unloaded at Tinian Island in the South Pacific.
July 29, 1945 - A Japanese submarine sinks the Cruiser INDIANAPOLIS resulting in the loss of 881 crewmen. The ship sinks before a radio message can be sent out leaving survivors adrift for two days.
August 6, 1945 - First Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima from a B-29 flown by Col. Paul Tibbets.
August 8, 1945 - U.S.S.R. declares war on Japan then invades Manchuria.
August 9, 1945 - Second Atomic Bomb is dropped on Nagasaki from a B-29 flown by Maj. Charles Sweeney -- Emperor Hirohito and Japanese Prime Minister Suzuki then decide to seek an immediate peace with the Allies.
August 14, 1945 - Japanese accept unconditional surrender Gen. MacArthur is appointed to head the occupation forces in Japan.
August 16, 1945 - Gen. Wainwright, a POW since May 6, 1942, is released from a POW camp in Manchuria.
August 27, 1945 - B-29s drop supplies to Allied POWs in China.
August 29, 1945 - The Soviets shoot down a B-29 dropping supplies to POWs in Korea U.S. Troops land near Tokyo to begin the occupation of Japan.
August 30, 1945 - The British reoccupy Hong Kong.
September 2, 1945 - Formal Japanese surrender ceremony on board the MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay as 1,000 carrier-based planes fly overhead President Truman declares VJ Day.
September 3, 1945 - The Japanese commander in the Philippines, Gen. Yamashita, surrenders to Gen. Wainwright at Baguio.
September 4, 1945 - Japanese troops on Wake Island surrender.
September 5, 1945 - British land in Singapore.
September 8, 1945 - MacArthur enters Tokyo.
September 9, 1945 - Japanese in Korea surrender.
September 13, 1945 - Japanese in Burma surrender.
October 24, 1945 - United Nations is born.
The History Place - World War II in the Pacific - Selected Battle Photos
Copyright © 1999 The History Place All Rights Reserved
A memoir of German Officer Ernst Jünger’s experiences on the Western Front. Jünger served as a Lieutenant in the German Army until 1923, and his recollections have been labelled as glorifying war.
In the preface to the 1929 English edition, Jünger stated that “Time only strengthens my conviction that it was a good and strenuous life, and that the war, for all its destructiveness, was an incomparable schooling of the heart..”
Hitler Hated This: Why Nazi Germany Feared the P-38 Lightning
In 1937, the U.S. Army Air Corp called for proposals for an interceptor capable of flying 360 miles-per-hour and climbing rapidly to high altitudes. Kelly Johnson, designer at Lockheed—then a small company without major prior military contracts—calculated only a twin-engine fighter could meet such parameters.
Johnson’s winning submission stood apart from the crowd: instead of a traditional fuselage, the twin Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled engines on his YP-38 connected at the tail via long booms. The pilot sat in a slender central pod from which bristled four .50-caliber machine guns and a 20-millimeter Hispano cannon. (A bulkier 37-millimeter Oldsmobile cannon on early models was quickly ditched.) Turbochargers mounted atop the engines enabled rapid climb-rates, increased its service ceiling, and even muffled the engines, with contra-rotating propellers to reduce torque.
The P-38 could indeed fly fast—maxing at 395 miles-per-hour—and far (at slower speeds), up to 1,100 miles. However, the fighter’s unconventional configuration had its downsides, notably an infamous tendency for the controls to lock up in steep, high-speed dives, with often fatal results. The engines were finicky and required high levels of pilot training that were frequently lacking. The cockpit was poorly temperature-regulated—freezing at high altitude, excessively hot in tropical climates.
These flaws led the British Royal Air Force to cancel its Lightning order—only for it to be subsequently picked up by America after the Pearl Harbor attack. Uniquely amongst U.S. fighters, it remained in production throughout the entire war, with 10,000 built.
Each P-38 cost around $120-100,000, twice the price of most U.S. single-engine fighters. However, the P-38’s long range and heavy payload—up to 3,000 pounds of bombs and rockets—meant it could perform missions early-war single-engine types simply couldn’t.
On August 9, 1942, two Lightning’s engaged in the “ Thousand Mile War” for the Alaskan Aleutian Islands shot down the type’s first kill, an H6K seaplane. Five days later, an Iceland-based Lightning claimed the Air Corps first German aerial kill, an Fw-200 Condor maritime patrol plane. That winter, Lightnings decimated air and sea transports supplying (and later evacuating) German forces in North Africa, earning the grudging nickname Gabelschwanz Teufel—“Fork-tailed Devil”—their nose-mounted guns proving more accurate and hard-hitting than the wing-mounted weapons of most American fighters.
However, while the P-38 was nimble at low altitude, it grew sluggish higher up and suffered heavy losses dogfighting more agile Me-109G and Fw-190 fighters while escorting heavy B-17 bombers over Europe. The 7th Air Force more extensively used Lightnings in the Mediterranean, but even there took a beating in raids over Romania and Bulgaria. A few P-38s were even captured and used by Italian and German pilots to bushwhack Allied bombers.
By 1944, Johnson had identified and resolved the flaws in the Lightning’s airframe—adding power-assisted ailerons and dive flaps that respectively improved its roll-rate and corrected its tendency to lock into steep dives. Late-war bare-metal P-38J and L models incorporated these fixes, along with extra fuel tanks, heated flight suits, and uprated 1,475-horsepower engines (distinguishable by their “chin” radiators)—boosting maximum speed to 420 miles per hour.
The Lightning increasingly excelled as a fighter-bomber armed with 2,000-pound bombs and quintuple-racks of 5” high-velocity rockets. During the D-Day landing, P-38s with black-and-white invasion stripes roamed over northwestern France, blasting Wehrmacht headquarters, radar stations, trains and vehicle columns. One Lightning even skipped a bomb through the command post of Field Marshall von Kluge.
However, the Lightning’s shortcomings vis-a-vis German fighters meant it never equaled the reputation of single-engine Mustang and Thunderbolt fighters. This is unfortunate, as the Lightning was the top-performing Army fighter in the Pacific War, its engines more reliable in tropical climates and its accurate guns more devastating against lightly-armored Japanese warbirds.
In fact, the top-two scoring U.S. fighter pilots ever, Richard Bong with forty kills and Thomas McGuire with 38, both flew Lightnings. Neither survived the war: McGuire smashed his Lightning into the ground dogfighting in the Philippines. Bong died taking off in an F-80 jet.
Charles Lindbergh also flew a Lightning in combat nearly seventeen years after his pioneering trans-Atlantic flight, as did French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry ( The Little Prince), whose F-5B crashed into the Mediterranean in 1944. Col. Robin Olds, who combat career spanned the Korean and Vietnam Wars with 16 kills, began his tally with a Lightning.
Perhaps the P-38’s most legendary mission occurred on April 18, 1943, after U.S. signals intelligence discovered that Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese navy chief and architect of the Pearl Harbor raid, was flying to inspect troops on Bougainville. Sixteen P-38Gs departed from Guadalcanal and flew a 1,000-mile roundtrip to intercept Yamamoto’s G4M Betty transport and send it crashing to the island below. Yamamoto’s body was found still clenching his officer’s katana in one hand.
Special Lightning variants included 700 F-4 and F-5 photo-reconnaissance models, and “Pathfinder” Lightnings with glass noses from which a navigator lying on his belly could peer below to guide strikes onto a target. In 1945, seventy-five black, two-seat P-38M night fighters were converted with a chin-mounted AN/APS-6 radar (effective range: around 5 miles) to hunt Japanese night bombers.
Though swiftly retired after World War II, the Lightning continued service with French and Italian Air Force and saw combat with Chinese Nationalists (one became the first victim of the Soviet-built MiG-15 jet) and over Guatemala, sinking a ship during a CIA-backed coup.
Despite its flaws, the P-38 was a rare early example of a successful “heavy” fighter boasting speed, range and firepower—similar to modern multi-role fighters like the F-15 and Su-27. Kelly Johnson’s design has also proved as timelessly rugged as it is stylish—in 1992, a P-38 crash-landed in Greenland fifty years earlier was excavated from under 82 meters of ice and restored to flyable condition in 2007—under the name Glacier Girl, of course.
Sébastien Roblin holds a Master’s Degree in Conflict Resolution from Georgetown University and served as a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in education, editing, and refugee resettlement in France and the United States. He currently writes on security and military history for War Is Boring.
AP World History Exam: 4 Essential Study Tips
Here are a few study tips that will help you prepare strategically for the AP World History exam. In addition to these tidbits of advice, you can check out this article with a longer list of the best study tips for this class.
#1: We All Scream for Historical Themes
I'm sure you've been screaming with delight throughout your entire reading of this article because the themes are so thrilling. Seriously, though, they're super important for doing well on the final exam. Knowledge of specific facts about different empires and regions throughout history will be of little use on the test if you can't weave that information together to construct a larger narrative.
As you look through the notes, think carefully about how everything connects back to the six major themes of the course.
For example, if you're reading about the expansion of long-distance trade networks in the early modern period, you might start to think about how these new exchanges impacted the natural environment (theme 1). If you get into this mode of thinking early, you'll have an easier time writing high-quality essays on the final exam.
#2: Practice Outlining Essays (Especially the DBQ)
It's critical to write well-organized, coherent essays on the World History test, but statistics indicate that a large majority of students struggle with this aspect of the exam.
In 2019, the average DBQ score was just 2.28 out of 7 points—ouch. That means most students had trouble incorporating these documents into their arguments in a way that flowed logically.
I guarantee you can earn much more than 2 points on the DBQ and other essay questions if you consistently practice writing outlines that follow the instructions and stay focused on the main topic. Try to become a pro at planning out your ideas by the time the exam rolls around.
#3: Know Your Chronology
You don't need to memorize a ton of exact dates, but you do need to be aware of the basic order in which major events happened in each region of the world. If someone tells you the name of an empire or dynasty, you should know which centuries it was active and what caused its rise and fall.
Pay attention to the overall developments that occurred in world history during each period designated by the course. What types of contact were made between different regions? Where were trading networks established? What were the dominant powers?
Multiple-choice and essay questions will ask you to focus on certain time periods and regions, so you should know the gist of what was going on at any given juncture.
#4: Don't Sweat the Small Stuff
It's not necessary to know the names of every single region in a particular empire and the exact dates when they were conquered. You're not expected to have a photographic memory. AP World History is mostly about broad themes.
You should still include a few specific details in your essays to back up your main points, but that's not nearly as important as showing a deep understanding of the progression of human history on a larger scale.
Don't let yourself get to this point. In terms of sweating the small stuff, I mean. You can do crunches while you study if you want. Maybe you can create your own smash hit training program that helps people exercise and study for AP tests at the same time, and you'll be so rich you won't even have to go to college. You're welcome.
Best Books About the American Revolution
The American Revolution is one of the most thoroughly documented subjects in American history. Countless books have been published on the topic and there are new ones coming out every year.
For readers interested in learning more about the revolution, these books are a great place to start. Since the topic is very broad, the focus of each book tends to vary.
Some books cover the entire span of the American Revolution while others focus on particular battles, years, places or people involved.
I’ve compiled a list of what I think are some of the best books about the American Revolution. The books mentioned in the list are some of the best-selling books on the topic and all have great reviews on sites like Amazon, Goodreads and etc.
I have also used many of these books in my research for this website and can personally recommend them as some of the best books on the American Revolution:
(Disclaimer: This post contains Amazon affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.)
1. Bunker Hill: a City, a Siege, a Revolution by Nathaniel Philbrick
Published in 2013, this book explores the role of Boston and the Battle of Bunker Hill in the American Revolution.
In the book, Philbrick argues that the Revolutionary War started in Boston with defiant acts like the Boston Tea Party and the Stamp Act riots, not at the battles of Lexington or Concord, which he considers important yet not pivotal encounters between the redcoats and the militia.
As Philbrick explains in the preface, the book discusses how the rebellion in Boston sparked a nation-wide war for independence:
“Thus, the Battle of Bunker Hill is the critical turning point in the story of how a rebellion born in the streets of Boston became a countrywide war for independence…In the pages that follow I hope to provide an intimate account of how over the course of just eighteen months a revolution transformed a city and the towns that surrounded it, and how that transformation influenced what eventually became the United States of America.”
Nathaniel Philbrick is an author who has written numerous books about American history including Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War In the Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex and Sea of Glory: America’s Voyage of Discovery.
2. 1776 by David McCullough
Published in 2005, this book explores the events of the year 1776 both in the colonies and overseas.
The book discusses the actions and events that led Great Britain to engage in war with the colonies as well as the events of the war itself in that particular year.
The New York Times review of the book states it is “a stirring and timely work, reminding us that it’s soldiers rather than ‘tavern patriots and windy politicians’ who have always paid the price of American idealism and determined its successes.”
The Guardian newspaper also reviewed the book and described it is a “well written, conventional war history, illustrated with quotations from the letters and diaries of men and some women on both sides…” yet also argues that the book’s narrow focus on just one year in the war has its drawbacks, mostly a lack of political background and context:
“The minus is the lack of political background, which is perfunctory. So New York and Long Island were full of ‘loyalists’? What were their own dreams for America and what happened to them in the end? So Washington was a slave-owner and a friend of liberty? Plenty has been written about that elsewhere, but at least a sample should have entered this book.”
David McCullough is a Pulitzer-Prize winning author who has written many books about American history including John Adams Truman The Wright Brothers The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge.
3. Paul Revere’s Ride by David Hackett Fischer
Published in 1994, this book explores Revere’s famous midnight ride and discusses what really happened that night, what led up to that moment and what happened after, revealing that the ride had an important impact on the events that followed.
David Hackett Fischer is a Pulitzer-Prize winning author and history professor at Brandeis University where he has been a faculty member for over 50 years.
Fisher has written many books about American history including Washington’s Crossing Champlain’s Dream and Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America.
4. Patriots: The Men Who Started the American Revolution by A.J. Langguth
Published in 1989, this book explores the entire span of the American Revolution by following the major political figures involved in the revolution.
Rather than focusing on the chronological events of the war, the book discusses the motives of the people involved and, in doing so, provides a portrait of the mindset of the revolution.
A.J. Langguth, who died in 2014, was a journalist, author and journalism professor at the University of Southern California.
Langguth served as a war correspondent for the New York Times during the Vietnam war and also wrote numerous books about American history including After Lincoln: How the North Won the Civil War and Lost the Peace Union 1812: The Americans Who Fought the Second War of Independence and Our Vietnam: The War 1954-1975.
5. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution 1763-1789 by Richard Middlekauff
Published in 1982, this book explores the events of the eight-year-long revolutionary war starting with the events that indirectly caused it, such as the French and Indian War, and ending with the election of George Washington as President of the United States.
Richard Middlekauff is an author and history professor at U.C. Berkley. Middlekauff has written many books on American history including Ancients and Axioms: Secondary Education in Eighteenth Century New England The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals and Benjamin Franklin and His Enemies.
6. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice 1763-1789 by Don Higginbotham
Published in 1971, this book discusses the political and military history of the American Revolution, spanning the entire length of the revolution while doing so.
Rather than provide a blow-by-blow of the battles of the revolution, this book instead discusses the military people, events, and issues of the revolution.
Don Higginbotham, who died in 2008, was an author and history professor at the University of North Carolina. Higgingbotham specialized in 18th century American history and was a leading scholar on George Washington.
Higginbotham wrote many books about American history including George Washington and the American Military Tradition George Washington: A Uniting Nation, Revolution in America: Considerations and Comparisons and War and Society in Revolutionary America: The Wider Dimensions of Conflict.
7. Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution by Benson Bobrick
Published in 1997, this book covers the entire span of the American Revolution and also discusses the issues and events that led up to the war, such as how debt incurred from the French and Indian War prompted the British government to heavily tax the colonies which then spurred the colonists to rebel.
Benson Bobrick is an author who has written many history books including Fight for Freedom: The American Revolutionary War East of the Sun: The Epic Conquest and Tragic History of Siberia and Testament: A Soldier’s Story of the Civil War.
8. A History of the American Revolution by John R. Alden
Published in 1969, this book covers the span of the American Revolution from the days of the French and Indian War to Washington’s inauguration and, while doing so, details the important political, military and social aspects of the revolution.
The book is noted for being a balanced, fair portrayal of the revolution. It doesn’t glorify the patriots or the founding fathers and instead provides an accurate depiction of both sides involved in the war.
The New York Times critic, Charles Poore, said in a review of the book when it was first published:
“I know of no other single volume that revitalizes the era with such balance and candor. Even the cockiness that used to invigorate whacks at King George III is replaced with an urbane understanding of that rather Germanic monarch’s hangups.”
John R. Alden, who died in 1991, was an author and history professor at Duke University. Alden wrote numerous books about the American Revolution including The South in the Revolution, 1763-1789, George Washington: a Biography General Gage in America: Being a Principal History of His Role in the American Revolution and Rise of the American Republic.
9. Decisive Day: The Battle of Bunker Hill by Richard M. Ketchum
Published in 1962, this book also explores the events of the Battle of Bunker Hill which took place during the Siege of Boston.
The book discusses the events of the battle as they happened, using first-hand accounts to bring them to life, and also describes the various factors that influenced the battle and its outcome. Although the book was published several decades ago, it is still considered one of the best books about this famous battle.
Richard M. Ketchum, who passed away in 2012, was an author and magazine editor who wrote a number of books about the American Revolution including Saratoga Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War Divided Loyalties: How the American Revolution Came to New York Victory at Yorktown: The Campaign that Won the Revolution Winter Soldiers: The Battles for Trenton and Princeton.
10. The Radicalism of the American Revolution by Gordon S. Wood
Published in 1991, this book discusses the transformation American society went through as a result of the American Revolution.
The book explores how the colonies went from being a “deferential, monarchial, ordered, and static society” to a liberal, democratic society virtually overnight. The book won the Pulitzer Prize in 1993.
Gordon S. Wood is an author and a history professor at Brown University. He has written many books about the American Revolution including The Creation of the American Republic: 1776-1787 The American Revolution: a History and Empire of Liberty: a History of the Early Republic, 1789-1815.
Although I tried to include as many books as I could in this list, keep in mind that there are so many great books about the American Revolution that this list is just a small sample of the great works available on the subject.
If you are interested in learning more about American history, check out the following article about the Best Books About American History.
A Self-Propelled Gun With 360-Degree Maneuverability
The Germans also used the 88mm gun as a self-propelled gun. That further improved its mobility and increased its usefulness for close-in support for ground troops. This resulted in the Selbstfahrlafette with armor protecting the engine and driver. Six of these tank hunters were used successfully in the battle for France. However, the vehicle proved top heavy and provided very little space for the crew to operate the gun. There was limited movement in the gun, little space for carrying ammunition, and no provision for outriggers to stabilize the gun when firing. These were succeeded by the Zugkraftwagen 18t, a larger, more powerful and more heavily armored vehicle that could travel at 40 kilometers per hour. The gun on that vehicle could be elevated and swung 360 degrees for anti-aircraft use. It came with outrigger legs and a more accommodating firing platform for the crew.
Initial plans called for 112 units, but only 14 were produced by June 1943 when production ceased when other programs were given greater priority. As Germany’s military prospects continued to diminish, additional prototypes appeared, included one mounted on a converted bus chassis. The few that were actually produced were rushed to the Eastern Front in an effort to slow the advancing Red Army.
The 88 also was mounted on railway cars and used there in antiaircraft roles. In some cases, full railway batteries were positioned in the railroad yards. The Germans also mounted the guns on the Siebel Ferry, a shallow draught, twinhulled craft. These floating gun platform-ferry combinations proved quite effective and were used in the successful evacuation of two German divisions and all their equipment from Sicily.
Review: Volume 38 - First World War - History
The casualty figures below are presented both in numbers and as a percent of the total forces mobilized. This method allows us to see the severe toll the war took on the smaller countries such as Rumania, where numbers alone don't convey the loss. These figures are from Susan Everett's History of World War I (page 248). No two books tend to have the same figures so don't worry if you see different numbers elsewhere. They are representitive enough for the comparitive purpose intended here.
Note: The Central Powers are titled in red .
Click here to download a zip file containing the Microsoft Excel version 5.0 spreadsheet (casualty.zip, 7K) of this data with sample charts. The spreadsheet does not contain macros and is safe to download.
PLEASE READ BEFORE EMAILING ME ON OMISSIONS
Please be aware that these figures are taken from the Official History of the war. Allied Dominion figures were not broken out. Thus countries including Australia, Canada, and New Zealand are not listed separately - so I didn't have the data available for the various statistical groupings offered below. I fully appreciate the contributions made by these nations and in no way am I downplaying the important role they played. Keep in mind that I'm a yank, but you'll find more information at this site on Australia, Canada, and New Zealand than you will on the US.
A few of the 240,000 British war amputees.
Seriously wounded man: Somme, 1916
by Andre Dunoyer de Segonzac
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