History Rewind: First Polaris Firing, 1960

History Rewind: First Polaris Firing, 1960

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Nuclear submarine USS George Washington tests the Polaris missile in 1960. The missile was fired 1100 miles from it's target.

How have nuclear weapons shaped global politics? 10 key moments in the post-war atomic world

Atom bombs have been used in war just twice in history – at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan during World War Two. The results of this attack were so devastating that the threat of nuclear attack has shaped global politics ever since, says author Jeremy Black. He explores 10 key moments in the post-war atomic world.

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Published: June 22, 2020 at 4:20 pm

1948: The Berlin Crisis

1952: America tests the hydrogen bomb

The USA believed it had reasserted its nuclear primacy when it tested the first hydrogen bomb, destroying the Pacific island of Elugelab. The bomb employed a nuclear explosion that heated hydrogen isotopes sufficiently to fuse them into helium atoms, a transformation that released far more destructive energy than the atom bomb. US superiority, however, was short-lived: Britain became the third atomic power in 1952, while the Soviet Union developed its own H-bomb in 1953.

Listen: Historian Saul David revisits one of the bloodiest clashes of the Pacific War and explains how it played a crucial part in the United States’ decision to use atomic weapons against Japan

1949: The Soviet Union acquires the bomb

Successful spying on Western nuclear technology enabled the Soviet Union to complete its development of an effective nuclear bomb. At a stroke, the USA’s nuclear monopoly, which appeared to offer the Americans a means to coerce the Soviets, came to an end. This development had required a formidable effort, as the Soviet Union was devastated by the impact of the Second World War. It was pursued because Stalin believed that only nuclear parity would permit the Soviet Union to protect and advance its interests. However, the policy was seriously harmful to the economy, as it led to a distortion of research and investment choices. It was also militarily questionable, as the Soviets used resources that might otherwise have developed their conventional capability.

Listen: Taylor Downing discusses the Able Archer scare, which nearly witnessed global Armageddon

1957: Launch of Sputnik I

The launch by the Soviet Union of the first satellite to go into orbit revealed a capability for intercontinental rockets that brought the entire world within striking range, and thus made the USA vulnerable to attack. In strategic terms, rockets threatened to realise the doctrine, so often advanced in the 1920s and 1930s, that air power is a war-winning tool at the same time, they rendered the nuclear capability of the slower bombers of the American Strategic Air Command obsolete. This new capability made investment in expensive rocket technology seem essential, altering the character of both anti-nuclear defence and nuclear deterrence. In the USA, President Eisenhower was alerted to the increased threat to national security by a secret report from the Gaither Committee.

1960: First successful underwater firing of a Polaris intercontinental ballistic missile

Submarines could be based near the coast of target states, and were highly mobile and hard to detect. As a result, the firing of a ballistic missile by the American submarine, USS George Washington, off Cape Canaveral, Florida, represented a shift in force structure, away from the air force and towards the navy. The navy argued that its submarines could launch carefully-controlled strikes, permitting more sophisticated deterrence and retaliation management. Other states followed. Also in 1960, France became the fourth power to possess an atom bomb.

1987: Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty

This was the first major step to remove the threat of nuclear war in Europe. Cold War tensions had increased throughout the early 1980s, as fears of Soviet aggression led NATO to deploy tactical nuclear weapons, carried on Cruise and Pershing intermediate-range missiles. The treaty banned land-based missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,000 kilometres, and also set up a system of verification through on-site inspection. Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet leader, was willing to challenge the confrontational world view outlined in KGB reports. He was convinced that American policy on arms control was not motivated by a hidden agenda of weakening the Soviet Union, and this encouraged him to negotiate with the West.

1962: Cuban missile crisis

The world came close to nuclear war as the Soviet Union deployed missiles in Cuba, a Communist state being threatened by the USA. With Washington in range of these missiles, the USA imposed an air and naval quarantine to prevent the shipping of further Soviet supplies. It also considered an attack on Cuba, and threatened a full retaliatory nuclear strike if the Soviet missiles were fired. The prospect of nuclear war may have helped prevent conventional military operations, which would have begun with a US air attack on the Soviet bases on Cuba. In the eventual agreement, the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles in return, the USA withdrew their Jupiter missiles from their ally Turkey, and agreed not to invade Cuba. During the Berlin Crisis of the previous year, President Kennedy had reaffirmed the willingness to use atomic weaponry even if the Soviets did not, as West Berlin was particularly vulnerable to Soviet conventional attack.

1970: USA deploys Minuteman III missiles

Equipped with multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicles (MIRVs), which had first been tested in 1968, these missiles benefited from a greatly enhanced strike capacity. As a consequence, warhead numbers, and thus the potential destructiveness of a nuclear exchange, rose greatly. This was part of the race to enhance nuclear capability, which also saw the Americans cutting the response time of their land-based intercontinental missiles by developing the Titan II missile. The Titan had storable liquid propellants, which enabled in-silo launches and therefore improved the reaction time of the missiles in the event of a nuclear conflict.

1972: Anti-ballistic missile treaty

SALT I, a treaty between the USA and the Soviet Union, was a major attempt to diminish the possibility of nuclear war. The treaty limited the construction of defensive shields against missile attack to two anti-ballistic missile complexes, one around a concentration of intercontinental ballistic missiles and the other around the capital.

2003: Pakistan and India test-fire short-range surface-to-surface missiles

The nuclear strength of these powers became more of a problem as Cold War tensions ebbed and as they developed their missile forces. India had possessed atomic weapons from 1974 and Pakistan from 1988, but they displayed their weaponry more openly as national rivalry grew in the wake of clashes over Kashmir in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Both nations publicly tested nuclear weapons in 1998. That year, Pakistan test-fired its new Ghauri intermediate-range missile, while, in 1999, India fired its new long-range Agni 2 missile: its range extended to Tehran and most of China and South-East Asia. Both countrys’ short-range, surface-to-surface missiles, tested in 2003, were able to carry nuclear warheads.

These 14 Photos of New Jersey In The 1960s Are Mesmerizing

The 1960s were a tumultuous time in New Jersey’s history. On March 6, 1962, a savage snowstorm hit the state – hundreds of residents were evacuated from the shore area. On August 2, 1964, New Jersey experienced its first race riot, in Jersey City. In the following weeks, similar riots occurred in Paterson and Elizabeth dozens were injured and hundreds were arrested. From June 23 to June 25, 1967, President Johnson met with Soviet premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey. In the midst of the Cold War, the Glassboro Summit Conference helped improve relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, though no specific agreements were reached. Just weeks later, New Jersey’s worst race riots broke out in Newark.

Of course, there was creation, innovation and plenty of fun amidst the chaos. In 1961, the first enclosed shopping mall on the East Coast opened in Cherry Hill. In 1963, snowboarding pioneer Tom Sims of Haddonfield created the “ski board,” an early version of the snowboard. In 1965, Mildred Barry Hughes was first woman elected to the New Jersey Senate. In 1969, the New Jersey lottery got its start and New Jersey native Buzz Aldrin (from Glen Ridge) landed on the moon with Neil Armstrong. Life isn’t all about the big events though, sometimes it’s about the little moments. The following shots capture everyday life in New Jersey in the 1960s.

USS Long Beach (CGN-9)

USS Long Beach (CLGN-160/CGN-160/CGN-9) was a nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser in the United States Navy and the world's first nuclear-powered surface combatant. [3] She was the third Navy ship named after the city of Long Beach, California.

  • 1 May 1995
  • (deactivated on 2 July 1994)
  • 1 AN/SPS-10 surface search radar [1] search radar [1] bearing and range radar [1] target tracking radar [1] 3D air search radar 2D air search radar
  • 2 AN/SPG-49 Talos fire control radar [1][2]
  • 4 AN/SPG-55 Terrier fire control radar [1][2]
  • AN/SQS-23 SONAR [1]
  • Two twin Terrierguided-missile launchers (later replaced by Mk-10 launchers with Standard SM-1(ER)
  • 1 × twin Talos guided-missile launcher (later removed)
  • 1 × 8-cell ASROC launcher
  • 2 × 5 in (127 mm)guns
  • 2 × Mk-15 Vulcan-Phalanx 20mm CIWS
  • 2 × triple 12.75 inch ASW torpedo tubes for Mk 44 or Mk 46 ASW torpedoes
  • Launchers for 8 Harpoon missiles added later
  • 2 Armored Box Launchers for a total of eight Tomahawk cruise missiles replaced the Talos launcher

She was the sole member of the Long Beach-class, and the last cruiser built for the United States Navy to a cruiser design all subsequent cruiser classes were built on scaled-up destroyer hulls (and originally classified as destroyer leaders) or, in the case of the Albany-class, converted from already existing cruisers. [ citation needed ]

Long Beach was laid down 2 December 1957, launched 14 July 1959 and commissioned 9 September 1961 under the command of then-Captain Eugene Parks Wilkinson, who previously served as the first commanding officer of the world's first nuclear-powered vessel, the submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) . She deployed to Vietnam during the Vietnam War and served numerous times in the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. By the 1990s, nuclear power was deemed too expensive to use on surface ships smaller than an aircraft carrier in view of defense budget cutbacks after the end of the Cold War. Long Beach was decommissioned on 1 May 1995 instead of receiving her third nuclear refueling and proposed upgrade. After removal of the nuclear fuel, superstructure, and sections of the bow and stern, the hull segment containing the reactor and machinery spaces remains moored at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.


Early years – Hendee and Hedstrom Edit

The "Indian Motocycle Co." was founded as the Hendee Manufacturing Company by George M. Hendee in 1897 to manufacture bicycles. These were initially badged as "Silver King" and "Silver Queen" brands but the name "American Indian", quickly shortened to just "Indian", was adopted by Hendee from 1898 onwards because it gave better product recognition in export markets. Oscar Hedstrom joined in 1900. Both Hendee and Hedstrom were former bicycle racers and manufacturers, and after building three prototypes in Middletown, Connecticut, [3] they teamed up to produce a motorcycle with a 1.75 bhp, single-cylinder engine in Hendee's home town of Springfield. The motorcycle was successful and sales increased dramatically during the next decade. [4]

The first Indian prototype was then built and completed on May 25, 1901, by Hedström at the old Worcester Cycle Manufacturing Company in Middletown, Connecticut, and the first public demonstration was held on Cross Street in Springfield, Massachusetts at 12:00 noon on Saturday, June 1, 1901.

In 1901, a prototype and two production units of the diamond-framed Indian Single were successfully designed, built and tested. The first Indian motorcycles, having chain drives and streamlined styling, were sold to the public in 1902. In 1903, Indian's co-founder and chief engineer Oscar Hedstrom set the world motorcycle speed record of 56 mph. [ citation needed ] In 1904 the company introduced the deep red color that would become Indian's trademark. Annual production of Indian motorcycles then exceeded 500, rising to a peak of 32,000 in 1913. The engines of the Indian Single were built by the Aurora Firm in Illinois under license from the Hendee Mfg. Co. until 1906.

Aurora produced engines under license for Indian from about 1901 to 1907. Aurora was also allowed to sell Indian design engines to third parties and pay Indian a fee. [5] After 1907, Aurora could make its own complete motorcycles, which it did as Thor, and Indian began manufacturing its own engines. [5]

Competitive successes Edit

In 1905, Indian built its first V-twin factory racer and in following years made a strong showing in racing and record-breaking. In 1907, the company introduced the first street version V-twin and a roadster styled after the factory racer. The roadster can be distinguished from the racers by the presence of twist grip linkages. [6] [ verification needed ] One of the firm's most famous riders was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker, who set many long-distance records. In 1914, he rode an Indian across America, from San Diego to New York, in a record 11 days, 12 hours and ten minutes. Baker's mount in subsequent years was the Powerplus, a side-valve V-twin, which was introduced in 1916. Its 61ci (1000 cc), 42 degree V-twin engine was more powerful and quieter than previous designs, giving a top speed of 60 mph (96 km/h). The Powerplus was highly successful, both as a roadster and as the basis for racing bikes. It remained in production with few changes until 1924.

Competition success played a big part in Indian's rapid growth and spurred technical innovation as well. One of the American firm's best early results came in the Isle of Man TT in 1911, when Indian riders Oliver Cyril Godfrey, Franklin and Moorehouse finished first, second and third. Indian star Jake DeRosier set several speed records, both in America and at Brooklands in Britain, and won an estimated 900 races on dirt and board tracks. [7] He left Indian for Excelsior and died in 1913, aged 33, of injuries sustained in a board track race crash with Charles "Fearless" Balke, who later became Indian's top rider. [7] Work at the Indian factory was stopped while DeRosier's funeral procession passed by. [7]

Oscar Hedstrom left Indian in 1913 after disagreements with the board of directors regarding dubious practices to inflate the company's stock value. [8] George Hendee resigned in 1916. [9]

Lightweights 1916–1919 Edit

Indian introduced the 221 cc single cylinder two-stroke Model K "Featherweight" in 1916. [10] [11] The Model K had an open cradle frame with the engine as a stressed member [12] and a pivoting front fork that had been used earlier on single-cylinder motorcycles but had mostly been replaced on other Indian motorcycles by a leaf-sprung trailing link fork. [10]

The Model K was manufactured for one year and was replaced in 1917 by the Model O. The Model O had a four-stroke flat-twin engine and a new frame, but retained the pivoting fork at the front. The Model O was manufactured until 1919. [10]

World War I Edit

As the US entered World War I, Indian sold most of its Powerplus line in 1917 and 1918 to the United States government, starving its network of dealers. This blow to domestic availability of the motorcycles led to a loss of dealers from which Indian never quite recovered. [13] While the motorcycles were popular in the military, post-war demand was then taken up by other manufacturers to whom many of the previously loyal Indian dealers turned. While Indian shared in the business boom of the 1920s, it had lost its Number One position in the US market to Harley-Davidson.

Inter-war era Edit

The Scout and Chief V-twins, introduced in the early 1920s, became the Springfield firm's most successful models. Designed by Charles Franklin, the middleweight Scout and larger Chief shared a 42-degree V-twin engine layout. Both models gained a reputation for strength and reliability.

In 1930, Indian merged with Du Pont Motors. [14] DuPont Motors founder E. Paul DuPont ceased production of duPont automobiles and concentrated the company's resources on Indian. [14] DuPont's paint industry connections resulted in no fewer than 24 color options in 1934. Models of that era had Indian's famous war bonnet logo on the gas tank. Indian's huge Springfield factory was known as the Wigwam, and native American imagery was much used in advertising.

In 1940, Indian sold nearly as many motorcycles as its major rival, Harley-Davidson. During this time, Indian also manufactured other products such as aircraft engines, bicycles, boat motors and air conditioners.

Scout Edit

The Indian Scout was built from 1920 through 1949. It rivaled the Chief as Indian's most important model.

The Scout was introduced for 1920. Designed by Charles B. Franklin, the Scout had its gearbox bolted to the engine and was driven by gears instead of by belt or chain. [15] The engine originally displaced 37 cu in (610 cc) the Scout 45, with a displacement of 45 cu in (740 cc), became available in 1927 to compete with the Excelsior Super X. [9] [16] A front brake became standard on the original Scout early in 1928. [16]

Later in 1928, the Scout and Scout 45 were replaced by the Model 101 Scout. Another Franklin design, the 101 Scout had a longer wheelbase and lower seat height than the original. The 101 Scout was well known for its handling. [16] [17] [18] [19]

The 101 Scout was replaced by the Standard Scout for 1932. The Standard Scout shared its frame with the Chief and the Four as a result, the Standard Scout was heavier and less nimble than the 101. [18] [19]

A second line of Scouts was introduced for 1933. Based on the frame of the discontinued Indian Prince single-cylinder motorcycle, the Motoplane used the 45 cubic inch engine from the Standard Scout while the Pony Scout had a reduced displacement of 30.5 cu in (500 cc). In 1934 the Motoplane was replaced by the Sport Scout with a heavier but stiffer frame better able to withstand the power of the 45 cubic inch engine, while the Pony Scout, later renamed the Junior Scout, was continued with the Prince/Motoplane frame. [20] Between the introduction of the Sport Scout in 1934 and the discontinuation of the Standard Scout in 1937 there were three Scout models (Pony/Junior, Standard, and Sport) with three different frames. The Sport Scout and the Junior Scout were continued until civilian production was interrupted in early 1942.

Chief Edit

Introduced in 1922, the Indian Chief had a 1,000 cc (61 cubic inches) engine based on the Powerplus engine a year later the engine was enlarged to 1,200 cc (73 cubic inches). Numerous improvements were made to the Chief over the years, including the provision of a front brake in 1928.

In 1940, all models were fitted with the large skirted fenders that became an Indian trademark, and the Chief gained a new sprung frame that was superior to rival Harley's unsprung rear end. [21] The 1940s Chiefs were handsome and comfortable machines, capable of 85 mph (137 km/h) in standard form and over 100 mph (160 km/h) when tuned, although their increased weight hampered acceleration.

The 1948 Chief had a 74 cubic inch engine, hand shift and foot clutch. While one handlebar grip controlled the throttle the other was a manual spark advance.

In 1950, the V-twin engine was enlarged to 1,300 cc (79 cubic inches) and telescopic forks were adopted. But Indian's financial problems meant that few bikes were built. Production of the Chief ended in 1953.

Four Edit

Indian purchased the Ace Motor Corporation in 1927 and moved production of the 4-cylinder Ace motorcycle to Springfield. It was marketed as the Indian Ace in 1927. [22] [23]

In 1928, the Indian Ace was replaced by the Indian 401, a development of the Ace designed by Arthur O. Lemon, former Chief Engineer at Ace, who was employed by Indian when they bought Ace. [24] The Ace's leading-link forks and central coil spring were replaced by Indian's trailing-link forks and quarter-elliptic leaf spring. [23] [25]

In 1929, the Indian 401 was replaced by the Indian 402 which received a stronger twin-downtube frame based on the 101 Scout frame and a sturdier five-bearing crankshaft than the Ace, which only had a three-bearing crankshaft. [24] [26]

Despite the low demand for luxury motorcycles during the Great Depression, Indian not only continued production of the Four, but continued to develop the motorcycle. One of the less popular versions of the Four was the "upside down" engine on the 1936-37 models. While earlier (and later) Fours had inlet-over-exhaust (IOE) cylinder heads with overhead inlet valves and side exhaust valves, the 1936-1937 Indian Four had a unique EOI cylinder head, with the positions reversed. In theory, this would improve fuel vaporization, and the new engine was more powerful. However, the new system made the cylinder head, and the rider's inseam, very hot. This, along with an exhaust valvetrain that required frequent adjustment, caused sales to drop. The addition of dual carburetors in 1937 did not revive interest. The design was returned to the original configuration in 1938. [24] [27] [28]

Like the Chief, the Four was given large, skirted fenders and plunger rear suspension in 1940. In 1941, the 18-inch wheels of previous models were replaced with 16-inch wheels with balloon tires. [24]

The Indian Four was discontinued in 1942. [24] [29] Recognition of the historical significance of the 1940 four-cylinder model was made with an August 2006 United States Postal Service 39-cent stamp issue, part of a four-panel set entitled American Motorcycles. [30] A 1941 model is part of the Smithsonian Motorcycle Collection on display at the National Museum of American History. [31] Single examples of both the 1931 and 1935 Indian Fours are in the ground vehicle collection of the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. [32]

World War II Edit

During World War II, Chiefs, Scouts, and Junior Scouts were used in small numbers for various purposes by the United States Army and were also used extensively by British and other Commonwealth military services, under Lend Lease programs. However, none of these Indian models could unseat the Harley-Davidson WLA as the motorcycle mainly used by the US military.

An early war military design by Indian was based on the 750 cc (46 cu in) Scout 640 (and was often compared to Harley-Davidson's WLA), but was either too expensive or heavy, or a combination of both. Indian's later offering, the 500 cc (31 cu in) 741B was not selected to gain a US Military contract. Indian also made a version based on the 1,200 cc (73 cu in) Chief, the 344. Approximately 1,000 experimental versions mounting the 750 cc motor sideways and using shaft drive, as on a modern Moto Guzzi, the 841, were also tried.

Indian made a prototype of a lightweight bike, called the M1 light motorcycle for the World War 2 Airborne forces. The lightweight design could be airdropped with the troops. The design never made it past prototype. [33]

841 Edit

During World War II, the US Army requested experimental motorcycle designs suitable for desert fighting. [34] In response Indian designed and built the 841. Approximately 1,056 models were built.

The Indian 841 was heavily inspired by the BMW R71 motorcycle (which, though not used by the German Army later was the basis for the Soviet M72, which is the basis for the Ural and Chiang Jiang motorcycle) as was its competitor, the Harley-Davidson XA. [35] However, unlike the XA, the 841 was not a copy of the R71. Although its tubular frame, plunger rear suspension, and shaft drive were similar to the BMW's, the 841 was different from the BMW in several aspects, most noticeably so with its 90-degree longitudinal-crankshaft V-twin engine and girder fork. [34] [35]

The Indian 841 and the Harley-Davidson XA were both tested by the Army, but neither motorcycle was adopted for wider military use. It was determined that the Jeep was more suitable for the roles and missions for which these motorcycles had been intended. [34] [36]

Post-war decline and demise Edit

In 1945, a group headed by Ralph B. Rogers purchased a controlling interest of the company. [37] On November 1, 1945, duPont formally turned the operations of Indian over to Rogers. [14] Under Rogers' control, Indian resumed production with only one model, the Chief, for 1946 and ‘47. 1947 was also the year the Indian-head fender light, also known as the "war bonnet", was introduced. [38] In 1948, they added two rebadged import models, the Czech built CZ125b, and the Brockhouse Engineering produced Corgi Scooter. The Scooter, a novel 100cc vehicle developed for paratroopers during World War II, was rebadged the Papoose. Indian also produced a limited number (appx. 50) 648 model Scouts for racing.

In 1949, they discontinued the Chief, as they began domestic manufacture of two lightweight motorcycles, the single-cylinder 220 cc 149 Arrow and the twin-cylinder 440 cc 249 Scout. The Scout was offered in various trim levels. The initial shipment of lightweights developed a reputation for unreliability, often associated with a rush to market. Later shipments were reported by publications of the time to have resolved most reliability issues by the following year.

The 1950 lineup brought back the Chief, with telescopic forks. It also saw the introduction of the twin-cylinder 500 cc Warrior model, which received both a standard and high pipe sporting TT trim. On the Corporate side, Rogers would step down as CEO of Indian to take employment at Texas Instruments. Replacing Rogers was hand-picked successor John Brockhouse, President and owner of Brockhouse engineering. Unfortunately, new management did not bring new fortune, and production of all models wound down in 1952, with most 1953 Chiefs built from remaining parts. All product manufacturing ended in 1953.

Corporate successors Edit

Brockhouse Engineering (1953-1960) Edit

As Rogers liquidated Indian in 1953, Brockhouse Engineering acquired the rights to the Indian name. The Indian Sales Corp continued to support the rebranded Papoose Scooter (which would cease production in 1954) and the Brave, a European-styled 125 cc lightweight bike. All other models were abandoned after reducing inventory. The Brave had been designed prior to the acquisition, and produced by an English subsidiary owned by Brockhouse. Indian had imported these outsourced models since 1951, when Brockhouse was then-President of Indian under Rogers Ownership. Outside these two models that directly benefitted Brockhouses umbrella industries, ISC also sold a variety of rebadged imports, including Vincent, AJS, and Matchless from various dates until solidifying their import models line-up to a single manufacturer.

From 1955 through 1960, they imported English Royal Enfield motorcycles, mildly customized them in the United States, [ citation needed ] and sold them under Indian branding. [37] Almost all Royal Enfield models had a corresponding Indian model in the US. The models were Indian Chief, Trailblazer, Apache (all three were 700 cc twins), Tomahawk (500 cc twin), Woodsman (500 cc single), Westerner (500 cc single), Hounds Arrow (250 cc single), Fire Arrow (250 cc single), Lance (150 cc 2-stroke single) and a 3-wheeled Patrol Car (350 cc single). [39]

Associated Motor Cycles (1960-1963) Edit

In 1960, the Indian name was bought by AMC of the UK. Royal Enfield being their competition, they abruptly stopped all Enfield-based Indian models except the 700 cc Chief. In 1962 AMC, facing financial issues, withdrew from all marketing of the Indian Brand name, as the company chose to focus exclusively on their Norton and Matchless Brands.

Floyd Clymer (1963-1970) Edit

From the 1960s, entrepreneur Floyd Clymer began using the Indian name. He attached it to imported motorcycles, commissioned to Italian ex-pilot and engineer Leopoldo Tartarini, owner of Italjet Moto, to manufacture Minarelli-engined 50 cc minibikes under the Indian Papoose name. These were successful so Clymer commissioned Tartarini to build full-size Indian motorcycles based on the Italjet Griffon design, fitted with Royal Enfield Interceptor 750 cc parallel-twin engines.

A further development was the Indian Velo 500, a limited-production run using a Velocette single-cylinder engine with various Norton, and Royal Enfield drivetrain components, and Italian Chassis parts. This included a lightweight frame from the Italjet company, Marzocchi front forks with Grimeca front hub having a twin-leading shoe brake, Borrani aluminium rims and quickly-detachable tank and seat, resulting in a weight-saving of 45 lb (20 kg) compared to the traditional Velocette Venom. [40]

The project ended abruptly due to Clymer's death and the failure of Velocette, with 200 machines shipped to US and a further 50 remaining in Italy, which were bought by London Velocette dealer Geoff Dodkin. When roadtesting, UK monthly magazine Motorcycle Sport described it as "British engineering and Italian styling in a package originally intended for the American market", reporting that Dodkin would supply his bikes with either a standard Venom engine specification, or, at higher cost, a Thruxton version. [40]

Alan Newman Ownership (1970-1977) Edit

After Clymer's death in 1970 his widow sold the alleged Indian trademark to Los Angeles attorney Alan Newman, who continued to import minicycles made by ItalJet, and later manufactured in a wholly owned assembly plant located in Taipei (Taiwan). Several models with engine displacement between 50 cc and 175 cc were produced, mostly fitted with Italian two-stroke engines made either by Italjet or Franco Morini.

In 1974, Newman planned to revive large-capacity machines as the Indian 900, using a Ducati 860 cc engine and commissioned Leo Tartarini of Italjet to produce a prototype. The project failed, leaving the prototype as the only survivor. [41] [42]

Sales of Newman's Indians were dwindling by 1975. The company was declared bankrupt in January 1977.

American Moped Associates & DMCA (1977-1984) Edit

The Indian Trademark was purchased from bankruptcy court for $10,000 in late 1977 by American Moped Associates, who would employ the Taiwanese manufacturing plant to make a new moped using licensed patents from Honda's discontinued PC50-K1. The result was the Indian AMI-50 Chief. This moped was offered from 1978 until late 1983, as the trademark was purchased by Carmen DeLeone’s DMCA (Derbi) group in 1982, who discounted the remaining moped stock, and discontinued manufacture. Derbi-Manco would offer Badge engineered go-carts utilizing the ‘4-stroke Indian’ moniker, before the Indian name disappeared from all motorized vehicles in 1984. The right to the brand name then passed through a succession of owners and became a subject of competing claims in the late 1980s. [43]

Other attempts (1984-1999) Edit

By 1992, the Clymer claim to the trademark had been transferred to Indian Motocycle Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Berlin, a corporation headed by Philip S. Zanghi. [44]

In June 1994, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wayne Baughman, president of Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Incorporated, presented, started, and rode a prototype Indian Century V-Twin Chief. Baughman had made previous statements about building new motorcycles under the Indian brand but this was his first appearance with a working motorcycle. [45]

Neither Zanghi nor Baughman began production of motorcycles. [46] In August 1997, Zanghi was convicted of securities fraud, tax evasion, and money laundering. [47]

In January 1998, Eller Industries was given permission to purchase the Indian copyright from the receivers of the previous owner. Eller Industries hired Roush Industries to design the engine for the motorcycle, and was negotiating with the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians to build a motorcycle factory on their tribal land. [48] Three renderings, one each of a cruiser, a sport cruiser, and a sport bike, on frames specified by suspension designer James Parker, were shown to the motorcycling press in February 1998. [49]

Eller Industries arranged a public unveiling of the cruiser prototype for November 1998, but was prevented from showing the prototype by a restraining order from the receiver, who said that Eller had failed to meet the terms of its obligations. [50] The contract was withdrawn after the company missed its deadline to close the deal and could not agree with the receiver to an extension on the deadline. [51] Other conditions, including payment of administrative costs and presenting a working prototype, were also not met by Eller Industries. Based on this, a Federal bankruptcy court in Denver, Colorado, allowed the sale of the trademark to IMCOA Licensing America Inc. in December 1998. [52]

Indian Motorcycle Company of America (1999–2003) Edit

The Indian Motorcycle Company of America was formed from the merger of nine companies, including manufacturer California Motorcycle Company (CMC) and IMCOA Licensing America Inc., which was awarded the Indian trademark by the Federal District Court of Colorado in 1998. [53] The new company began manufacturing motorcycles in 1999 at the former CMC's facilities in Gilroy, California. The first "Gilroy Indian" model was a new design called the Chief. Scout and Spirit models were also manufactured from 2001. These bikes were initially made with off-the-shelf 88 cubic inch S&S engines, but later used the 100-cubic-inch (1,600 cc) Powerplus (bottlecap) engine design from 2002 to 2003. The Indian Motorcycle Corporation went into bankruptcy and ceased all production operations in Gilroy on September 19, 2003. [54]

Indian Motorcycle Company (2006-2011) Edit

On July 20, 2006, the newly formed Indian Motorcycle Company, owned largely by Stellican Limited, a London-based private equity firm, announced its new home in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, where it restarted the Indian motorcycle brand, [55] manufacturing Indian Chief motorcycles in limited numbers, with a focus on exclusivity rather than performance. Starting out where the defunct Gilroy IMC operation left off in 2003, the "Kings Mountain" models were continuation models based on the new series of motorcycles developed in 1999. The 2009 Indian Chief incorporated a redesigned 105-cubic-inch (1,720 cc) Powerplus V-twin powertrain with electronic closed-loop sequential-port fuel injection, [56] and a charging system providing increased capacity for the electronic fuel injection.

Polaris Acquisition (since 2011) Edit

In April 2011, Polaris Industries, the off-road and leisure vehicle maker and parent company of Victory Motorcycles, announced its intention to acquire Indian Motorcycle. Indian's production facilities were moved to Spirit Lake, Iowa, where production began on August 5, 2011. [57] In March 2013, Indian unveiled their new 111 cubic inches (1.82 l) "Thunder Stroke" engine, [58] and began to sell their newly designed motorcycles based on it in August 2013.

On August 3, 2013, Polaris announced three all-new Indian-branded motorcycles based on the traditional styling of the Indian marque, along with the Thunder Stroke 111 V-twin engine. The motor has a triple-cam design with a chain-driven center cam turning front and rear cams via gears, permitting parallel placement of the pushrods to give a similar appearance to older Indian designs. It is air cooled, with large traditional fins and an airbox in the cast aluminum frame. [59] All Indians using the Thunder Stroke 111 engine share this aluminum frame design, though the wheelbase and front end rake vary depending on model. The integrated transmission is also gear-driven.

Since 2013, Indian has expanded its line up to five models, currently offered in 23 trim levels. Of these, twelve have the Thunderstroke 111 engine. Five offerings use the smaller engine displacement, liquid-cooled Scout engines. The Scout has four trims in its line featuring the 69.14 cu in (1,133.0 cm 3 ) engine, while the Scout 60 has its eponymous 61 cu in (1,000 cm 3 ) variant. Indian offers 3 distinctions of their FTR 1200, a sportier cycle introduced in 2019. And as of 2020, the Challenger Bagger featuring the all-new Indian PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin has been introduced, with three variations.

Chief Classic (2014–2018 ) Edit

The standard Chief Classic has the valanced fenders and the lighted "war bonnet" on the front fender. Cruise control, antilock braking system, keyless starting, and electronic fuel injection are standard on this and all other models. It has a six-speed transmission and manually-adjustable single-shock swingarm.

Chief Vintage (2014– ) Edit

The Indian Chief Vintage shares the chassis, drivetrain, and styling of the Chief Classic, and adds tan leather quick-release saddlebags, matching tan leather two-up seat, additional chrome trim, quick-release windshield, and a six-speed transmission.

Springfield (2016– ) Edit

The Springfield was introduced in March 2016 during Daytona Bike Week. It is named after the birthplace of Indian Motorcycles, Springfield, Massachusetts. The Springfield is a bit of a hybrid bike, sharing steering geometry and hardbags with the Chieftain and RoadMaster models but is equipped with a quick detach windshield like the Vintage. It also boasts an adjustable rear air shock like the other touring models.

Chieftain (2014– ) Edit

The Indian Chieftain touring motorcycle is the first Indian model with front fairing and hard saddlebags. It has a stereo with speakers in the fairing, Bluetooth media players, tire pressure sensors, air-adjustable rear shock, and motorized windshield adjustment. Initial reports from the press were favorable for styling, performance, and handling. [60] The Chieftain was named 2013 Motorcycle of the Year by RoadRunner Motorcycle Touring & Travel magazine. [61]

Scout (2015– ) Edit

The Indian Scout was introduced at the 2014 Sturgis Motorcycle Rally as a 2015 model. The 2015 Scout is a cruiser with a 1,133 cc (69.1 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine and a frame formed by multiple aluminum alloy castings bolted to each other and to the engine. [62] The Indian Scout was named 2015 Motorcycle of the year by Motorcycle.com. [63]

Scout Sixty (2016– ) Edit

The Indian Scout Sixty was introduced in November 2015 as a 2016 model. The Scout Sixty is a cruiser with a 999 cc (61.0 cu in) liquid-cooled, double overhead camshaft V-twin engine. The new Scout Sixty has many of the same features as the 2014 Scout, but with a smaller 999 cc engine. [64]

Roadmaster (2015– ) Edit

The Indian Roadmaster was introduced at the 2014 Sturgis Motorcycle Rally shortly before the Scout. The Roadmaster is a Chieftain with an added trunk, front fairing lowers, heated seats, heated grips, LED headlights, passenger floorboards, and a rear crash bar. The Roadmaster had been developed before the Chieftain. [65] Cycle World recorded 72.4 hp (54.0 kW) @ 4,440 rpm and 102.7 lb⋅ft (139.2 N⋅m) @ 2,480 rpm at the rear tire. They also recorded a tested 1/4 mile time of 13.91 seconds at 94.44 mph (151.99 km/h) and a 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) acceleration at 5.2 seconds, a 60 to 0 mph (97 to 0 km/h) braking distance of 125 ft (38 m), and fuel economy of 35.9 mpg‑US (6.55 L/100 km 43.1 mpg‑imp). [66]

Chief Dark Horse (2016– ) Edit

The 2016 Indian Dark Horse was introduced on Valentine's Day 2015. [67] It is based on a Chief Classic painted in flat black, with the driving lights, oil cooler, analog fuel gauge, passenger pillion seat and passenger pegs removed. [67]

Chieftain Dark Horse (2016– ) Edit

The 2016 Indian Chieftain Dark Horse was introduced in May 2016. [68] It has a full fairing and hard saddlebags, but lacks other accessories in the Chieftain line. It has a claimed 119.2 lb⋅ft (161.6 N⋅m) @ 3000 rpm and a dry weight of 803 lb (364 kg). [69]

Chieftain Limited (2017- ) Edit

The 2017 Indian Chieftain Limited adds more of a bagger style to the Chieftain. The front fender was opened up to show off 19" custom wheels, and a limited coloring scheme. This model also boasts the full ride command touch screen display that the Roadmaster also uses. It has the upper fairing with power windscreen and optional passenger seat.

RoadMaster Classic (2017-2018) Edit

The 2017 Indian Roadmaster Classic was introduced in February 2017, and discontinued before the end of 2018. It has the traditional styling tan leather bags and trunk along with heated seats, heated grips, LED headlights, passenger floorboards, and rear crash bars. It does not have the hard front lowers found on the original Roadmaster.

Springfield Dark Horse (2018- ) Edit

For 2018 Indian offers the Springfield in Dark Horse flavor. Open front fender with 19" cast front wheel.

Scout Bobber (2018- ) Edit

The Scout Bobber is a factory-modified version of the Scout that features style components taken from the “bobber” community of motorcycles, hence the name. These modifications include chopped front and rear mud guards, bar end mirrors, low seat, low handlebars, and a side-mounted license plate holder.

FTR1200 (2019- ) Edit

The FTR1200 takes its inspiration from the flat track racing heritage of Indian. It is considered a “street tracker”, a street-legal motorcycle with flat track bike styling.

Challenger (2020- ) Edit

The Challenger is the first bagger crafted by Indian Motorcycle. It embeds the new Indian PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin engine that produces 122 horsepower and 128 foot-pounds of torque. The front suspension uses an inverted 43mm fork, which provides 5.1 inches of travel and rear suspension is provided by a hydraulically adjustable rear shock.

Challenger Dark Horse (2020- ) Edit

The Indian Challenger with the Dark Horse flavor is powered by the PowerPlus liquid-cooled 60-degree V-twin engine that produces 122 horsepower and 128 foot-pounds of torque. The front suspension uses an inverted 43mm fork, which provides 5.1 inches of travel and rear suspension is provided by a hydraulically adjustable rear shock.

Between 1962 and 1967, Burt Munro from New Zealand used a modified 1920s Indian Scout to set a number of land speed records, as dramatised in the 2005 film The World's Fastest Indian. [70] [71] In 2014 Indian had a similar custom streamliner built, the Spirit of Munro, to promote their new 111 cubic-inch engine and challenge speed records. [72] [73]

Both Hendee and Hedstrom had built bicycles before they met, and Hendee had marketed his under the Silver King and Silver Queen names. They continued to manufacture bicycles after their motorcycles became successful and even made bicycles designed to resemble their motorcycles. [74]

6. Editorial Note

At the 353d meeting of the National Security Council on January 30, 1958, William M. Holaday , Director of Guided Missiles in the Department of Defense, gave the Council its third annual briefing on ballistic missile programs:

“At the conclusion of the presentation, Mr. Cutler noted that Mr. Holaday had displayed charts showing the following figures: 393 IRBM s, 173 Polaris missiles, and 272 ICBM s. Mr. Cutler asked whether these figures were larger than the figures previously reported because of the inclusion in the larger figure of training and test missiles. Mr. Holaday answered in the affirmative.

“Mr. Cutler said the purpose of his question was to point out that the operational capability figures approved by the President last week were smaller than the figures displayed by Mr. Holaday because the operational capability figures did not include training and test vehicles.

“Secretary McElroy noted that production of missiles had begun in advance of acquiring the research and development knowledge which, ideally, should be available in advance of production. He believed the decision to start production was correct, but wished to point out that this decision would probably entail increased expense because of design changes in the course of production. He was being pressed to move even faster, especially on Polaris, which was an attractive deterrent weapons system. The first firing of a complete Polaris would not take place until October 1959, but three Polaris submarines with missiles had already been ordered. One Senator had suggested that 100 submarines should be ordered. As we go farther down the research and development road we may have to take further gambles, but the present gamble is as big as the [Page 31] Department of Defense can recommend now. If test firings were successful, Secretary McElroy hoped to recommend expansions of the missiles program.

“Dr. Killian inquired about the prospects for liquid Titan propellants other than refrigerated liquids. Mr. Holaday said present progress was slow because the technicians were leaning toward solid propellants. Some liquids looked promising, but research on these liquids would have to be pushed if progress was to be made.” (Memorandum of discussion by Boggs , January 31 Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records)

Notes dated January 30 for Holaday ’s presentation and Cutler ’s introductory remarks, attached to the memorandum, are in the Supplement.

After the discussion, the NSC noted the briefing in NSC Action No. 1850, approved by the President on January 31. (Department of State, S/S – NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95, Records of Action by the National Security Council)

Further Reading

“ All – Terrain Vehicle Makers Accused of Not Enforcing Safety Agreement, ” Wall Street Journal, April 16, 1992, p. B5.

Bassett, Jerry, Polaris Partners, St. Paul, Minnesota: Recreational Publications, Inc., 1994.

Beal, Dave, “ Can Roseau County Keep It Up? ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, March 4, 1991.

_____, “ For Snowmobile Makers, Storm of Century Timely, ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, November 11, 1991.

Dapper, Michael, “ Snow Pioneers, ” Snowmobile, November 1994, pp. 74 – 93.

Foster, Jim, “ Polaris Now a Public Corporation, ” Minneapolis Star Tribune, December 23, 1994, p. 3D.

Harris, John, “ Noisemakers, ” Forbes, October 29, 1990, pp. 104 – 06.

Hendricks, Dick, “ Snowmobiling: The Next Generation, ” Snowmobile, January 1995, p. 13.

McCartney, Jim, “ Polaris Will Dive into Water Scooter Market Next Year, ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, August 2, 1991.

Opre, Tom, “ Snowmobiles at 25, ” Outdoor Life, January 1984, pp. 18 – 20.

“ Polaris Snowmobile Celebrates Birthday, ” St. Paul Pioneer Press, July 17, 1989.

Poole, Wiley, “ Built in the U.S.A., ” Trailer Boats, September 1992, pp. 60 – 61.

Ramstad, C. J., Legend: Arctic Cat ’ s First Quarter Century, Deep – haven, Minnesota: PPM Books, 1987.

Rubenstein, David, “ Wheels of Fortune, ” Corporate Report Minnesota, March 1986, pp. 58 – 62.

“ The Ruckus over Snowmobiles, ” Changing Times, January 1980, p. 16.

Skorupa, Joe, “ Ski – Doo: 50 Years on Snow, ” Popular Mechanics, January 1992, pp. 94 – 95.

“ Splendor in the Snow, ” Corporate Report Minnesota, April 1977, pp. 10 – 12.

“ Those Wild Snowmobilers — Expensive Fun in More Ways Than One, ” Corporate Report Minnesota, February 28, 1970, pp. 8 – 10.

“ Those Wild Snowmobilers — Where Do They Go from Here? ” Corporate Report Minnesota, March 14, 1970, pp. 8 – 10.

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The Cobra Judy radar was a ship-based radar program based on the US Naval Ship Observation Island [T-AGM-23]. COBRA JUDY operated from Pearl Harbor and was designed to detect, track and collect intelligence data on US. Russian, and other strategic ballistic missile tests over the Pacific Ocean.

USNS Observation Island was quietly struck from the rolls of U.S. Navy vessels and inactivated on March 31, 2014, ending the 30-year joint Army/Air Force Cobra Judy program.

Originally launched on Aug. 15, 1953 as the Empire State Mariner, a Mariner class high speed cargo ship, the ship entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet in 1954 after a few voyages. The Empire State transferred to the Navy on Sept. 10, 1956 and became the first ship equipped with a fully integrated Fleet Ballistic Missile System. It was officially commissioned two years later on Dec. 5, 1958 as the USS Observation Island.

On Aug. 27, 1959, the USS Observation Island made history as it launched the first sea-launched A-1 Polaris missile. After conducting six launches, the Observation Island provided support to the submarine-launched Polaris test program, providing optical and electronic data collection. Later, President John F. Kennedy watched a Polaris launch demonstration from the decks of the Observation Island on Nov. 14, 1963.

The AN/SPQ-11 shipborne phased array radar is designed to detect and track ICBM's launched by Russia in their west-to-east missile range. The Cobra Judy operates in the the 2900-3100 MHz band. The octagonal S-band array, composed of 12 288 antenna elements, forms a large octagonal structure approximately 7 m in diameter. and is integrated into a mechanically rotated steel turret. The entire system weighs about 250 tonnes, stands over forty feet high.

In 1985, Raytheon installed an 9-GHz X-band radar, using a parabolic dish antenna to complement the S-band phased array system. The five story X-band dish antenna is installed aft of the ship's funnel and forward of the phased array. The X-band upgrade [which may be associated with the COBRA SHOE program name] was intended to improve the system's ability to collect intelligence data on the terminal phase of ballistic missile tests, since operation in X-band offers a better degree of resolution and target separation.

The S-Band and X-Band radars are used to verify treaty compliance and provide support to missile development tests by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The radars are also being used for research and development work in areas not accessible to ground-based sensors.

The ship is operated by Military Sealift Command for the U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. Electronic Systems Center provides sustainment while an AIA detachment at Patrick AFB, Fla. oversees daily operation.

USNS Observation Island is a converted merchant ship, modified first as a fleet ballistic missile test launch platform, then as a missile tracking platform. USNS Observation Island operates worldwide, monitoring foreign missile tests for the Air Force Intelligence command. The Military Sealift Command operates ships manned by civilian crews and under the command of a civilian master. These ships, indicated by the blue and gold bands on their stack, are "United States Naval Ships" vice "United States Ships" as is the case of commissioned ships.

U.S.S. Observation Island began her career as the SS Empire State Mariner. Her keel was laid on 15 September, 1952, at New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey. Following a short career as a Merchant Vessel she was placed in the Maritime Reserve Fleet. ON 10 September, 1956, the vessel was transferred to the Navy for use as the sea going facility for test and evaluation of the Fleet Ballistic Missile Weapons System.

The ship was commissioned as USS Observation Island (EAG-154) on December 1958. During conversion, extensive changes were made to the superstructure and holds to accommodate the installation of the first compete Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) Weapons System. From commissioning, until 27 August 1959, the efforts of the officers and men were directed towards the first at sea launch of Polaris Missile. The first launching of a Polaris test missile at sea was successfully conducted from the deck of the USS Observation Island about seven missiles off Cape Canaveral in September 1959.

Following this milestone and the subsequent firing of other Polaris Missiles, the ship began supporting Polairs launchings from the FBM submarines USS George Washington (SSBN 598) being the first. On 15 December 1960, Observation Island was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for its performance during the first Polaris launches at sea. On 1 March, 1961 the ship successfully launched the new A2 Polaris Missile and on 23 October supported the first successful launch of the new A2 Polaris from an FBM Submarine, the USS Ethan Allen (SSBN 608).

During November and December 1961, Observation Island played the new role of survey ship on the Atlantic Missile Range. In January the ship returned to Norfolk Naval Shipyard for further modification in preparation for firing the new A3 Polaris and upon return to Port Canaveral in March 1962, rsumed her role as FBM submarine support ship which continued throught the summer. September and October of 1962 found Observation Island firing A2 Polaris Missiles on the Atlantic Missile Range. In late October, the ship departed for Hawaii via the Panama Canal for similar launches on the Pacific Missile Range. Meanwhile the role of submarine support was taken over by Destroyers mounting communications and telemetry equipment in portable vans. Up intil this time, every Polaris submarine had been supported by the Observation Island.

Observation Island departed Pearl Harbor in early December and arrived in Port Canaveral before Christmas. From late April until early June 1963, Obsrvation Island was expanding her role in oceanagraphic survey in ocean areas of the Atlantic Missile Range. Upon return from survey operations, on 17 June 1963, Observation Island made the first successful at sea launch of the new A3 Polaris Missile. Immediately after firing a second successful A3 Polaris on 21 June, Observation Island proceeded to Norfolk Naval Shipyard for further modifications. The ship returned to Port Canaveral in late August 1963, and supported FBM submarine launches including the first submerged launch of an A3 Polaris missile by the USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN 619) in October. On November 16, 1963, Observation Island was host ship to the late President Kennedy when he came aboard to observe a Polaris A2 launch at sea form the submerged submarine, USS Andrew Jackson. During the winter of 1963 the ship continued to support Polaris launchings from submarines as well as making several launchings from her own decks.

In March 1964, the ship departed Port Canaveral for launch and support operations in the Pacific Missile Range. In early June the ship returned to her home port, after a brief port visit in Acupulco, Mexico. The months from June to October 1964 again found the Observation Island in her familiar role as FBM submarine launching support ship, operating from Port Canaveral. On 14 October 1964 the ship departed her home port for operations in support of the Pacific Missile Range. Liberty ports during this deployment included Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and Hong Kong. The deployment ended with the arrival of the ship in Port Canaveral on 9 April 1965. The ship returned to the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in the summer of 1965 for a shipyard availability period of approximately two months. Following this overhaul period she returned to daily support operations out of Port Canaveral for FBM submarines and survey work in the Atlantic Missile Range.

The vessel was converted at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, and in reserve from September 1972. On Aug. 18, 1977, Observation Island was reacquired by the U.S. Navy from the Maritime Administration and transferred to Military Sealift Command and reclassified as T-AGM 23.

On 14 May 1999, Raytheon Support Services, Burlington, Mass., was awarded an $11,824,227 firm-fixed-price contract to provide for operation and maintenance from May 14, 1999, through May 13, 2000, of the Cobra Judy and Cobra Gemini radar systems deployed on the USNS Observation Island and the USNS Invincible, respectively. There were four firms solicited and three proposals received. Expected contract completion date is May 13, 2000. Solicitation issue date was Oct. 20, 1998. Negotiation completion date was May 13, 1999. The 668th Logistics Squadron, Kelly AFB, Texas, was the contracting activity.

The fully equipped USNS Observation Island/Cobra Judy had a twofold mission: monitoring compliance with strategic arms treaties worldwide and supporting military weapons test programs. The two primary customers were the Air Force Foreign Technology Division and the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command, a predecessor to the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command.

Cobra Judy provided the necessary high resolution metric and signature data on midcourse and reentry phases of ballistic missiles flights with particular attention given to the size, shape, mass and precise motion of the target. This information would help recreate target trajectories and define vehicle signatures enhancing future discrimination algorithms.

As the missile defense program progressed, Cobra Judy provided support to many of the missile programs, collecting flight data on both strategic and theater missiles and interceptors throughout the test program. In addition, Cobra Judy participated in Operation Burnt Frost, the destruction of the defective American satellite in 2008.

Over the years, however with few replacement parts available, it became increasingly difficult to support and maintain the Cobra Judy radars. Nevertheless, the USNS Observation Island continued to operate and completed its final mission in December 2013. It was replaced by the new COBRA KING radar system housed aboard the USNS Howard O. Lorenzen.

For more than 31 years, the Observation Island/Cobra Judy averaged more than 260 days a year at sea and completed 558 nationally sponsored missions. As Ed Hotz, a Cobra Judy program manager, observed this spring. "The information collected was critical in the development of shoot-down algorithms for both tactical and strategic missile defense systems supporting international treaty verification [and] providing national decision makers, from the president on down, with precise actionable data on world events."

General Characteristics, USNS Observation Island

Builder: New York Shipbuilding
Conversion: Maryland Shipbuilding and Drydock Company
Power Plant: Two boilers, geared turbines, single shaft, 19,250 shaft horsepower
Length: 564 feet (172 meters)
Beam: 76 feet (23 meters)
Displacement: 17,015 tons (15,468 metric tons)
Speed: 20 kts (23 mph, 37 kph)
USNS Observation Island (T-AGM 23)
Crew: 143 civilians

For its first entry into the retail market, Polaris chose vertically integrated manufacturer, distributor, retailer, and installer of off-road Jeep and truck accessories Transamerican Auto Parts. The $665 million deal holds the promise of transforming Polaris because it operates a network of 75 retail stores and six distribution centers, and is the biggest manufacturer and installer of aftermarket parts in its respective sectors, one that owns well-known brands such as Pro Comp, Rubicon Express, and Trail Master.

Over the years, Polaris has purchased a number of utility vehicle manufacturers, including Goupil in 2011, Global Electric Motorcars (GEM) and Aixam-Mega in 2013, and Taylor-Dunn in 2016. The global adjacent markets segment under which they're grouped now accounts for 8% of total revenues.

Strategy [ edit | edit source ]

First Stage [ edit | edit source ]

If the player is on the Anguished One's route, the Anguished One must be dispatched, and must survive throughout the entire battle. As the Anguished One cannot overthrow Polaris by himself (or even damage her, for that matter), a game over is also issued if all other human leaders are defeated.

The fight with Polaris comes in 3 stages. During the first stage, Polaris is effectively immune to everything save Almighty (which she resists), being capable of reflecting Physical attacks and nullifying every elemental attack, in addition to possessing several powerful skills and infinite range. Instead, the player has to weaken her by defeating the Guardian Stars scattered across the battlefield, gradually reducing her defenses, before being able to attack Polaris.

Polaris carries a unique skill called "Heaven's Wrath", which deals almighty damage for each Guardian that exists on the field. Therefore, the player must destroy all Guardians in order to minimize the damage. Unfortunately, after several turns, a defeated Guardian will be resurrected. However, Polaris will not recover her skills or resistances that were lost after the defeat of a Guardian.

Second Stage [ edit | edit source ]

For the next stage, Polaris gathers all her Guardians to form her full body. What happens depends on the route the player has chosen.

If the player is on the Anguished One's route, the Anguished One is sealed and prevented from taking any actions outside of skirmishes. The player has to attack and defeat Polaris to move on to the next stage, while fending off several strong demon teams that can harm the Anguished One.

If the player is on Yamato's route, the player has to defeat a number of strong demon teams to proceed.

If the player is on Ronaldo's route, fewer demons need to be defeated to proceed. However, Polaris also introduces 2 civilians which can be killed by the demons in one shot, and the players must prevent their deaths. The demons will prioritize on moving towards and killing the civilians.

If the player is on Daichi's route and chose to restore the world, Shadow forms of the Demon Tamers are summoned, mocking the player's choice, and they must be defeated to proceed. If the player has chosen to kill Polaris on that route instead, Polaris decides that their will to fight stems from the protagonist and summons several demon teams to attack the protagonist. Polaris must be attacked and defeated to proceed, but from this point on in the battle, if the protagonist is dead a game over is issued.

Final Stage [ edit | edit source ]

For the final stage, Polaris takes on a more bulky form, composed of 3 parts, labelled Polaris A, B, and Ab. Polaris A, the main body, is capable of firing Supernova, a large laser which inflicts Almighty damage to all teams standing in its line of sight. Said line of sight includes the bridge leading up to her. Fortunately, there are 2 conditions to take note regarding Polaris' Supernova:

  1. Polaris always telegraphs the attack by using Star Compression the turn before.
  2. Polaris always rests for a turn after firing Supernova.

When Polaris A uses Star Compression, it is highly recommended to evacuate the two columns leading up to her, unless the team that isn't doing so has resistance to Almighty damage (Yamato, Lucifer, or anyone with Anti-Almighty equipped) or a lot of HP and Vitality to withstand Supernova.

Polaris B, her right shoulder, possesses powerful Phys attacks along with infinite range, and Polaris Ab, her left shoulder, constantly summons another demon team (via Magnetite Conversion) into the battlefield each time it gets a turn. Only Polaris A needs to be defeated to end the battle, but Polaris B and Ab will increase the difficulty in defeating Polaris A by increasing her offensive and defensive strength respectively. Polaris is also capable of reviving Polaris B and Ab if they are defeated.

If the player is on the Anguished One's route or has chosen to kill Polaris on Daichi's route, Polaris B and Ab have their Racial Skills altered to give all Polaris bodies access to Double Extra and a Beast Eye ability, making both of them a greater threat to whoever gets attacked by any part of Polaris. Barring Supernova and Megidolaon, the largest source of damage coming from Polaris and her companion stars is mostly Physical damage, so prepare teams with Physical resistance (preferably Reflect, since Polaris A has Pierce). As Polaris A has no resistances other than an immunity to Curse, you are free to use whatever attacks you see fit to defeat her.

Watch the video: HIST-1493 The 1960s


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