Why did Spanish kings repeatedly split their kingdoms between their children upon death?

Why did Spanish kings repeatedly split their kingdoms between their children upon death?


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In the middle ages, Christian-held Spain were split into different kingdoms and realms. Before the eventual unification by the "Catholic Monarchs" (Ferdinand II and Isabela I), other kings have unified multiple kingdoms, but the kingdoms split again between children. For example:

  • Ferdinand I unified Leon and Castile but "by his will, [he] divided his kingdom among his three sons: the eldest, Sancho, received Castile; the second, Alfonso, León; and from the latter the region of Galicia was carved off to create a separate state for García." (Wikipedia)
  • Alfonso VII inherited the unified kingdoms from his mother, but after his death the throne split between his sons Sancho III of Castile and Ferdinand II of León.
  • Alfonso III also unified the kingdom which later split, but at least the reason for the split was explained because his children rebelled, forced him to abdicate and split the kingdom between them.

What was the reason for these recurring split? From geopolitical point of view, this prevented consolidation of the realms in the fight against the Muslims, and caused infightings because the successors were prone to claim each other's thrones.


De Las Casas and the Conquistadors

First contact experiences on Hispaniola included brutal interactions between the Spanish and the Native Americans. Conquistadors subjugated populations primarily to garner personal economic wealth, and Natives little understood the nature of the conquest. As early as 1522 Bartolome de Las Casas worked to denounce these activities on political, economic, moral, and religious grounds by chronicling the actions of the conquistadors for the Spanish court.


History Crash Course #20: A Divided Nation

The 10 northern tribes secede, splitting Israel in two.

When King Solomon dies in 796 BCE, Israel is still a united country, but there is some tension between the north and the south. We have to keep in mind that the Biblical State of Israel was comprised of tribes but the king always came from the tribe of Judah (and Jerusalem sat on Judah's tribal border) which could be viewed by the other tribes as unfair. A wise king would have to be especially aware of the sensitivities of the other tribes.

Following the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam becomes king, and in response to the political situation, goes up north to Shechem to have himself crowned. At this time, the northern tribes send a delegation to tell the king their complaints.

Chief of these is the toll that King Solomon's building projects -- the Temple in Jerusalem, his palaces, etc. -- had taken on the people in terms of taxes and forced labor. The northern tribes, in effect, ask the new king for a tax cut.

Rehoboam consults his advisors. The elders who had served under Solomon tell him to ease up on the people: "Speak to them gently, and they will be your servants forever." (1 Kings 12:7) But the younger upstarts advise him to show the people who is boss.

Rehoboam takes the latter advice and announces, "If you think my father was tough on you, just watch me! I'm going to be even tougher."

Rehoboam forgot that even God had called the Jews stiff-necked people. Jews are stubborn. In response to Rehoboam's arrogance, in the year 796 BCE, the northern tribes secede, creating a new kingdom called Israel. Rehoboam is left with just the southern part of the country and Jerusalem his kingdom is called Judah. (The terminology we use today: Judea and Samaria has its origins in the split of the country after Solomon's death)

At first he considers waging war on the north, but the prophet Shemaiah warns him against it, telling him that he cannot possibly win as this rending of the nation had been brought about by God. While the immediate cause of the split is the weakness and bad judgment of Rehoboam, the ultimate cause is rooted in idolatry of Solomon's wives.

The split is clearly bad news -- it is a disaster for many reasons, both spiritual and geopolitical. The once strong, unified nation is now a weak, divided nation, and it is going to fall prey to the re-emerging empires of Egypt, Assyria and later, Babylon.

THE SCHEMES OF KING JEROBOAM

The king of the northern country of Israel is Jeroboam ben Navat. He is a great man -- a scholar who once stood up to King Solomon (I Kings 11:26-40) -- and a great leader.

But unfortunately, the old saying -- "power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely" -- proves true. Pretty soon, Jeroboam is worrying less about leading the people and more about hanging on to his throne.

Jeroboam sees that the Jewish people in the north are still very strongly connected to Jerusalem. After all, that is where the Temple stands with its Holy of Holies and the Ark of the Covenant where the presence of God is most strongly felt. On the three festivals -- Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot -- the people continue to stream to Jerusalem. He sees that this commonality with the south could bring about a re-unification, in which case he will no longer be king.

So Jeroboam hatches a scheme. What does he do? He decides to set up an alternative place of worship in the north. He builds two other temples -- one in Beit El and one in Dan (where Tel Dan stands today).

That's bad enough in itself. But then he sets up golden calves in these temples and even uses the same language used in the Golden Calf story: "These are your gods, oh Israel, who brought you up from the land of Egypt!" (I Kings 12:28) This a blatant violation of the commandment against graven images. Furthermore, once you open the door to idolatry by introducing alternative sites and alternative modes of worship, it means trouble in the future.

Thus, a terrible period begins in Jewish history. In the next 240 years, there are 19 different kings of the northern kingdom of Israel -- all bad, with some much worse than others. They are idolaters, corrupt and evil, and they lead the Jewish people into idolatry.

Some of these kings are potentially great leaders, but spiritually they are off. And one thing we know -- if the Jews don't get their act together spiritually, they're not going to have their act together physically either. So, we see a time period of great political instability and "palace" intrigue, when kings come and go and the succession is usually very bloody.

KING AHAB AND JEZEBEL

Of all the bad kings of Israel, one who stands out on the worst list is King Ahab. Of him the Bible says:

He marries the infamous Jezebel, and built a temple to the Canaanite deity Baal, popularizing this form of idolatry among the Jewish people.

It's important to understand when you're reading the Books of Kings and looking at what the Jewish people were doing then, that the ancient people of the world were very religious and were always looking for ways to heighten their "spirituality." This is why idolatry was such a powerful draw and a ever-present obstacle that stood between the Jewish people and God.

A basic tenet of Judaism is that there is only one power in the world: God. There is no devil or other power competing with Him for control of the universe. The impure spirituality of idolatry was placed in the world by God to enable people to make the ultimate choice of living with or ignoring God. In the ancient world the attraction to idolatry was real and very powerful. This may be hard to fathom, because today we don't have the same drive for spirituality (I will explain why this is so later). Much of the Jewish people's drive to worship idols came out of a misguided desire to "enhance" their spiritual experience by incorporating Judaism and paganism. On a practical level it means that they were still keeping kosher and observing other Jewish laws, but they wanted "to have their cake and eat it too" -- they wanted both God and the spiritual high of idolatry.

The prophet of note at this time is Elijah. During this period of the divided monarchy, the primary function of the major prophets is to get the Jews of both Judah and Israel to turn away from their idolatry and evil ways and come back to God before it is too late. Elijah yearns to have the Jewish people repent. To this end, he decides to have a "show down" with the priests of Baal and to physically demonstrate the lie of idolatry to the Jewish people.

Elijah goes up north to Mount Carmel. Today the modern city of Haifa sits on the western edge of the Carmel Mountain Range. On the eastern side of the range is a place called Mukhraka, where there is a Carmelite monastery. In front of the monastery, there stands a statue of Elijah which commemorates the site where Elijah took on the priests of Baal.

Elijah wants the Jewish people to see that idolatry is nonsense and that there's only one God. So he challenges 450 priests of Baal to a contest. He proposes that each side offer a sacrificial bull to their deity and whichever deity sent a fire from heaven to consume the offering in full sight of the people would be accepted as the true God.

The priests of Baal really get into it. They've got their bull on the altar and they are beseeching Baal, shouting to the skies. But after nearly a full day of trying, nothing is happening and the animal carcass is only attracting flies. Meanwhile, Elijah mocks them:

They shout louder, but still nothing. So they start slashing their heads with knives. It's an ancient form of worship, based on using blood to get the gods excited. Still nothing.

It's really embarrassing now, and all the Jewish people are watching.

Toward the end of the day, Elijah finally gives order for the preparation of his own offering. He has it doused with water three times so it would be even more difficult to set aflame. He even has a water-filled ditch built around the altar. He then says one short prayer:

With that a fire comes down from the heaven consumes the sacrifice, the wood pile, the stones, the dust, and licks up the water in the ditch.

The gathered multitude responds in awe: "The Lord He is God, the Lord He is God!" (This is the very phrase we shout at the end of the Yom Kippur liturgy every year this is where it comes from.)

The priests of Baal are put to death by the crowd. But the story does not end there.

Hearing of what had happened, Jezebel sends a message to Elijah. "Tomorrow I will kill you." She knows that the memory of miracles does not last long. Today, the Jews are shouting "The Lord He is God," but tomorrow is another day.

Idol worship resumes soon enough and Elijah has to flee for his life the impact of his miracle quickly fades from the memory of most of the population and the northern kingdom sinks even further down spiritually.

Eventually, God is going to get tired of this. There is a covenant after all, and the Jews are not keeping their part of the bargain. The covenant clearly specifies that the Land of Israel, along with its bounty, is given to the Jewish people on certain conditions. When they violate those conditions, they will be expelled from the land. And this is about to happen to the northern kingdom, though not yet to the southern kingdom.

The people who are just waiting to take over are the Assyrians, inhabitants of today's Iraq.


Duke of York

In 1910, Albert's father became King George V, making Albert second in line for the throne behind his brother Edward, who quickly developed a reputation for his hard-partying ways. Albert, meanwhile, had just embarked on his full-fledged naval career when World War I broke out. Although he went through an emergency appendectomy in 1913, he recovered and rejoined the war effort, eventually being mentioned in dispatches for his action during the Battle of Jutland, the largest single naval battle of the war.

Albert suffered another medical setback when he had to have surgery for an ulcer in 1917, but he eventually transferred to the Royal Air Force and became the first royal to be a fully certified pilot. He was posted to France in the waning days of the war, and in 1919, after the war had ended, he became a full-fledged RAF pilot and was promoted to squadron leader. He was made Duke of York in 1920, at which time he began taking on more public duties, although his ongoing struggle with his stammer made public speaking difficult.

That same year, Albert crossed paths with Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, daughter of the Earl and Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne, for the first time since they were children. He fell in love with her immediately, but the path to marriage wasn’t quite so smooth. She rejected his marriage proposal twice, in 1921 and 1922, because she wasn’t sure she wanted to make the sacrifices that being a royal would require. By 1923, however, she agreed, and the couple were married on April 26, 1923. Their daughters Elizabeth and Margaret were born in 1926 and 1930, respectively.


Hoping to prevent a spring Indian onslaught, Plymouth Colony’s Governor Josiah Winslow gathered the colonial militia and attacked a massive Narragansett and Wampanoag fortification near the Great Swamp in West Kingston, Rhode Island, on December 19, 1675.

It is estimated that 300 Indians, including women and children, were either killed in the attack or died from exposure to the winter elements some were burned alive at the stake. The battle forced the weakened Narragansett, who had tried to remain neutral, to join King Philip’s fight under the leadership of Chief Canonchet.

After the Great Swamp Fight, King Philip set up camp in New York, possibly to enlist the Mohawk’s assistance. But the Mohawk attacked the Wampanoag and forced them to retreat to New England, with the Mohawk in hot pursuit.


Why the Bible Is So Special – Question 4

The Bible is divided into two testaments? the Old and the New “Testament.” What is the purpose for the division? Why are they called “testaments?”

A Testament Is a Covenant or Agreement

Testament is an old English word that means, “covenant,” or “agreement between two parties.” It was derived from the Latin testamentum. This term was used to translate the Greek and Hebrew words for covenant berit in Hebrew and diatheke in Greek. Hence the Old and New Covenants became the Old and New Testaments. This is the ancient meaning of the term.

However, the two parts of Scripture are not “testaments” in the modern sense of the word? a last will and testament. Rather, the term speaks of an agreement, covenant or contract. Consequently, it is unfortunate that the English word “testament” is still used to describe the Old and New Covenants that God has made with His people.

Before Jesus came to the earth there was only one group of sacred writings? there was no “Old” Testament. However, after it was recognized that God had given further sacred writings to humanity, believers began to distinguish between the two groups of written Scripture.

There Are a Number of Covenants Recorded in the Old Testament

In the Bible, the word “covenant” usually has the idea of an agreement between two parties where one party is superior to the other it is not an agreement between equals. The superior party makes a covenant in which he agrees to give certain things to the inferior party. This is the idea behind the agreements that God has made with the human race.

One of the central themes of the Old Testament is the idea of a covenant, or agreement, between God and humankind. The Bible lists a number of covenants that God instituted. They include the following:

The Covenant God Made with Adam and Eve

The first covenant in Scripture is the one God made with Adam and Eve. The Bible records it in the following manner:

As long as Adam and Eve obeyed God, they would live in paradise without any sin or evil in their lives. When Adam and Eve broke their part of the covenant, sin entered into the world.

1. The Covenant God Made with Noah

After the Flood, God made a covenant, or agreement, with Noah. The Lord said to him:

The New English Translation translates the verse this way:

In this covenant with Noah, God promised that He would never destroy the earth again by means of a flood. As a token of the covenant, the Lord gave an external sign the sign of the rainbow.

2. The Covenant God Made with Abraham

God made a covenant with a man named Abram (his name was later changed to Abraham). In this agreement, He promised to bless Abraham’s descendants. The Bible records what happened:

This was the beginning of what would later become the nation of Israel. The token of the covenant with the descendants of Abraham was the circumcision of the male children. This was the external sign that these people belonged to the Lord.

3. The Covenant God Made with Moses

The Old Testament, or Old Covenant, derives its name from the agreement that God made with the nation of Israel at Mt. Sinai. The Bible explains it as follows:

God emphasized that He would have a personal relationship with His people. He said:

Israel was the only nation that would have a special relationship with the Lord they were His chosen people. They were to worship Him exclusively.

4. The Covenant God Made with David

Later in the history of Israel, God made a covenant with King David. The Bible records it as follows:

In this covenant, God promised David that one of his descendants would build a house for the Lord and rule forever as king over the nation Israel. The initial fulfillment of this promise was found in David’s son Solomon. He is the one who built the temple for the Lord and ruled over the nation, but he certainly did not rule forever.

Indeed, there are promises listed in this passage that go beyond that which was fulfilled by Solomon. The agreement God made with David found its ultimate fulfillment in Jesus. The Bible records the visit of the angel Gabriel to the virgin Mary who explained how this covenant is fulfilled in Jesus. The Bible says:

Jesus is the ultimate fulfillment of the promise to David that one of his descendants would rule forever. Jesus, the Son of David, will rule the world from David’s throne when He comes again.

This brings up an important distinction that we find in the Old Testament, or Old Covenant. There were two lines of teaching in the Old Testament about the Promised Deliverer or Messiah. One emphasis was that David’s son, the Messiah, would restore humanity to a right relationship with God. This would occur by Him being an offering or sacrifice for sin.

Another line of teaching had David’s son ruling over the nations. Israel is restored as God’s chosen people with David’s son ruling as king.

Each of these purposes is seen in prophetic pictures in the Old Testament. The New Testament says part one was fulfilled at the first coming of Christ, while part two will be fulfilled at His second coming.

A New Covenant Is Promised

In the Book of Jeremiah we find a new covenant, or a new contract, promised to the people of God. It says:

The new covenant promised that the Law of God would be written on the hearts of the people. The Lord promised that this new covenant would take the place of the old one making the old covenant unnecessary.

The New Covenant Is Instituted by Jesus Christ

Jesus instituted the New Covenant, or the New Contract, on the night in which He was betrayed. The Gospel of Matthew records what took place. It says:

The Apostle Paul wrote to the Corinthians about the new covenant. He explained it in this manner:

Believers today are ministers of a new covenant.

Some Important Points about the New Covenant

Five points need to be made about the “New Covenant.” They are as follows:

1. The New Covenant Was Instituted by the Death of Jesus Christ

The new covenant is based upon the death of Jesus Christ on the cross of Calvary. Paul wrote about Jesus instituting it on the night in which He was betrayed. He said:

The New Living Translation renders this verse as follows:

Jesus’ death brought about this new covenant relationship between God and His people. The bread and the wine are memorials of this New Covenant. The wine represents the blood of the covenant. The Bible records Jesus saying:

This would remind the people of the words of Moses when God made a covenant with the children of Israel at Mt. Sinai. The Bible says:

Jesus’ blood is the token of the New Covenant.

2. God Now Deals Exclusively with Humanity Through the New Covenant

The major theme of the New Testament is how God now deals with humanity through the new covenant. In the New Testament, the Old Testament writings are called the old covenant. Paul wrote:

Jesus’ death on the cross put an end to the sacrificial system. In the Old Covenant, with the old system, the sin problem was dealt with through animal sacrifices. These sacrifices are no longer necessary.

3. The Old Covenant Is Now Obsolete

Because God is now dealing with humanity on the basis of the “new covenant,” the first covenant is now obsolete and outdated. The writer to the Hebrews stated:

We also read in Hebrews about how the first covenant has been cancelled:

God is now dealing with humanity through a New Covenant? the one that was instituted by the death of Jesus Christ. Everyone who participates in the New Covenant must personally believe that Jesus Christ died on the cross for their sins and then rose from the dead. This is the only way that they can have a personal relationship with God.

4. The Old Covenant and the New Covenant Gave Rise to a Group of Holy Writings

There is another thing that should be mentioned about the Old Covenant and the New Covenant. Each covenant launched a great spiritual work of the Lord. The Old Covenant was God’s unique workings with the nation Israel. The New Covenant extends to all people throughout the world. These covenants gave rise to a body of sacred literature. Once each covenant was instituted, a number of sacred writings were given by God to explain the meaning of the covenant.

Our Old Testament consists of the books of the Old Covenant, while the New Testament books are writings that are based upon the new covenant God has made with humanity.

5. The Law of God Is Presently in the Hearts of the People

The writer to the Hebrews said that God would put the law into the hearts of people under the new covenant. He wrote:

The wonderful promise of God made possible through the death of Jesus, is that God’s law is now placed in the hearts of those who believe in Him. Under the New Covenant, God gives His people the ability to carry out the terms of the covenant. The token of this covenant is the Holy Spirit who lives inside each believer. He empowers believers to follow Christ and to obey the terms of the New Covenant.

As we examine the various agreements that God has made with humanity, we find that God has always kept His part of the agreement. Unfortunately, the same thing cannot be said about the response of humans. We have miserably failed. This is why a Savior is desperately needed.

Summary – Question 4 Why Are the Two Divisions of the Bible Called the Old and New Testament?

The Bible is divided into two testaments, or covenants—the old and the new. “Testament” is not the best word to describe these parts of Scripture. They are not part of a last will or testament, but rather an agreement, or contract, that God has made with His people.

In the Bible, the covenant is usually seen as an agreement between a superior and one who is inferior it is not an agreement between equals. The superior member grants certain rights and privileges to the inferior member. This is illustrated by the various covenants that God has made with His people.

The Bible speaks of different agreements that God made with humanity. Indeed, the entire flow of biblical history, the unfolding drama of God’s redemption of the human race, is based upon the covenants that God has made with humankind.

In the Bible, we find covenants made with Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and David. Certain of the covenants came with visible signs. For example, God gave Noah the sign of the rainbow as a reminder of His agreement with Noah He would never again destroy humanity with a flood. The descendants of Abraham were to be circumcised to demonstrate their willingness to fulfill their covenant.

Through the prophet Jeremiah God also promised a new covenant. Jesus Himself is the one who instituted the new covenant. His broken body and His shed blood are the tokens of the New Covenant. The Old Testament, or Old Covenant, is now obsolete. Both covenants have given rise to a new spiritual movement as well as to a body of sacred literature the Old and New Testament. Each of these testaments explains the terms of the covenant.

The good news is that the law of God is now written on the hearts of the people of the New Covenant those who believe in Him. God has given His Holy Spirit as a token, or sign, of this New Covenant. This gives Christians the ability, as well as the desire, to carry out the terms of the covenant.

God has kept His part of the bargain in all of these covenants. However, humanity miserably failed to keep their part. This is why a Savior is desperately needed.


Political Life

Government. Although Ghana's national government was originally founded on a British parliamentary model, the current constitution follows an American tricameral system. The country is a multiparty democracy organized under an elected president, a legislature, and an independent judiciary. It is divided into ten administrative regions, exclusively staffed from the central government. Regions are further subdivided into local districts, organized under district assemblies. The majority of assembly members are elected, but some seats are allocated to traditional hereditary rulers. Chiefs also assume the major responsibility for traditional affairs, including stool land transfers, and are significant actors in local political rituals. They are also represented in the National House of Chiefs, which formulates general policies on traditional issues.

Leadership and Political Officials. Indigenous leaders assume hereditary positions but still must cultivate family and popular support, since several candidates within a descent line normally compete for leadership positions. Chiefs can also be deposed. On the national level, Ghana has been under military rule for a good part of its history, and army leadership has been determined by both rank and internal politics. Civilian leaders have drawn support from a variety of fronts. The first president, Nkrumah, developed a dramatic charisma and gave voice to many unrepresented groups in colonial society. K. A. Busia, who followed him after a military interregnum, represented the old guard and also appealed to Ashanti nationalism. Hillal Limann, the third president, identified himself as an Nkrumahist, acquiring power mainly through the application of his professional diplomatic skills. Jerry Rawlings, who led Ghana for 19 years, acquired power initially through the military and was able to capitalize on his position to prevail in civil elections in 1992 and 1996. He stepped down in 2000, and his party was defeated by the opposition, led by John Kufuor.

Ghana has seven political parties. Rawlings National Democratic Party is philosophically leftist and advocates strong central government, nationalism and pan-Africanism. However, during the major portion of its rule it followed a cautious economic approach and initiated a World Bank structural adjustment, liberalization, and privatization program. The current ruling party (as of 2001) is the New Patriotic Party. It has assumed the mantle of the Busia regime and intends to pursue a more conservative political and economic agenda than the previous regime.

Secular politicians are dependent upon the electorate and are easily approachable without elaborate ceremony. Administrators in the public service, however, can be quite aloof. Traditional Akan chiefs and kings are formally invested with quasi-religious status. Their subjects must greet them by prostrating themselves and may talk to them only indirectly through the chief's "linguist."

Social Problems and Control. The Ghanaian legal system is a mixture of British law, applicable to criminal cases, and indigenous custom for civil cases. The formal system is organized under an independent judiciary headed by a supreme court. Its independence, however, has sometimes been compromised by political interference, and, during Rawling's military rule, by the establishment of separate public tribunals for special cases involving political figures. These excesses have since been moderated, although the tribunal system remains in place under the control of the Chief Justice. Civil cases that concern customary matters, such as land, inheritance, and marriage, are usually heard by a traditional chief. Both criminal and civil laws are enforced by a national police force.

People are generally wary of the judicial system, which can involve substantial costs and unpredictable outcomes. They usually attempt to handle infractions and resolve disputes informally through personal appeal and mediation. Strong extended family ties tend to exercise a restraint on deviant behavior, and family meetings are often called to settle problems before they become public. Marital disputes are normally resolved by having the couple meet with the wife's uncle or father, who will take on the role of a marriage counselor and reunite the parties.

Partially because of the effective informal controls, the level of violent crime is low. Theft is the most common infraction. Smuggling is also rampant, but is not often prosecuted since smugglers regularly bribe police or customs agents.

Military Activity. Ghana's military, composed of about eight thousand members, includes an army and a subordinate navy and air force. There is also the People's Militia, responsible for controlling civil disturbances, and a presidential guard. Government support for these services is maintained at approximately 1 percent of GDP. The army leadership has demonstrated a consistent history of coups and formed the national government for approximately half of the time that the country has been independent. Ghana has not been involved in any wars since World War II and has not suffered any civil violence except for a few localized ethnic and sectarian skirmishes. It has participated in peacekeeping operations, though the United Nations, the Organization of African Unity, and the West African Community. The most recent interventions have been in Liberia and Sierra Leone.


The English Sweat

Also known as the sweating sickness and simply the sweats, the so-called "English Sweat" which claimed Arthur, Price of Wales's life has remained a medical mystery for centuries.

Reaching epidemic proportions on no less than five occasions during the late 15th and early 16th centuries, sweating sickness was highly lethal. Physician John Caius, whose book about the illness remains the most famous account from the time period, noted that death could occur within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms, and that those who survived the first 24 hours would usually make a full recovery (though surviving did not, evidently, prevent the patients from contracting the disease again.)

Sweating sickness was confined almost exclusively to England during its outbreaks, ravaging the wealthy more often than the poor. And yet, for all of its virulence, the sweats seemed to disappear almost as suddenly as they appeared in the first place, with no known outbreaks after 1578.

While the disease's disappearance no doubt saved thousands of lives, it has also stymied modern medical investigators hoping to understand what claimed the life of Arthur and so many of his subjects.

Part of the trouble stems from sweating sickness's symptoms&mdashfever, chills, aches, delirium, and, of course, intense sweating&mdashwhich are common to a number of diseases including influenza, scarlet fever, and typhus, yet never seem to fit exactly in strength, duration, or combination with any known medical issue. The most common modern theory suggests that the outbreaks may have been a form of hantavirus, similar to a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome that struck the American southwest in the 1990s. Exactly why the virus, if that was indeed the cause, would disappear so suddenly is not known, but some scholars suggest that it could be a result of the virus evolving in a way that made it less deadly or less easily spread to humans.


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Clovis I (Chlodwig) Mérovingiens

1. CHILDERICH (-Tournai [481/82], bur Tournai). m ([464]%29 as her second husband, BASINA, formerly wife of BASINUS King of Thuringia, daughter of -. King Childerich & his wife had four children:

a) CHLODOVECH [Clovis] ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names Clovis as son of Childerich & Basina[26]. He succeeded his father in [481/82] as CLOVIS I King of the Franks. CHLODOVECH [Clovis], son of CHILDERICH I King of the Franks & his wife Basina --- ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names Clovis as son of Childerich & Basina[37]. The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childerico" as father of "Chlodovecho rege"[38]. He succeeded his father in [481/82] as CLOVIS I King of the Franks. He defeated Syagrius, ruler at Soissons, in 486. The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlodovechus" expanded his kingdom "usque Sequanam" and afterwards "usque Ligere fluvio"[39]. He remained a pagan after his marriage to a Catholic wife, but converted to Christianity in [496] allegedly having vowed to do so if successful in a battle against the Alamans[40]. He allied with Godegisel against Gondebaud King of Burgundy in [500][41]. He defeated and killed Alaric II King of the Visigoths at the campus Vogladensis[42], probably Voulan, near Poitiers, athough this is popularly known as the battle of Vouillé[43], in 507. Gregory of Tours records that Clovis took control of the territory of Sigebert King of the Franks of the Rhine, after persuading Sigeric's son Chloderic to kill his father and then killing Chloderic, as well as the territory of Chararic King of the Salian Franks[44]. Gregory of Tours records the death of King Clovis in Paris "five years after the battle of Vouillé" and his burial in the church of the Holy Apostles, which he and Queen Clotilde had built[45]. Gregory of Tours records that Queen Clotilde became a nun at the church of St Martin at Tours after her husband died, and in a later passage records her death in Tours and burial in Paris next to her husband in the church which she had built[53]. She was canonised by the Catholic church, feast day 3 Jun[54]. MEDLANDS

[m firstly] ---, daughter of --- [of the Franks of the Rhine]. According to Gregory of Tours, the mother of Theoderich was one of King Clovis's concubines not his first wife[46]. Settipani[47] suggests that Theoderich’s mother was a Frank from the Rhine region, based on the inheritance of Austrasia by Theoderich and the roots "Theode-" and "-rich" in his name, possibly transmitted through his mother from Theodemer and Richomer who were both 4th century Frankish kings. MEDLANDS King Clovis & his first [wife/concubine] had one child:

m [secondly] (492) CHROTECHILDIS [Clotilde/Rotilde[48]] of Burgundy, daughter of CHILPERICH King of Burgundy & his wife --- ([480]-Tours, monastery of Saint-Martin 544 or 548, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). Gregory of Tours names "Clotilde" as the younger daughter of Chilperich, recording that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, but that the latter accepted a request for her hand in marriage from Clovis King of the Franks[49]. Fredegar states that she was driven into exile to Geneva by her uncle, after he allegedly murdered her father, and that King Clovis requested her hand in marriage as a means of controlling Gundobad's power[50]. A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" names "uxoris meæ Chrochildis…patris Chilperici regis Burgundiorum"[51]. Gregory of Tours records Clotilde's lack of success in converting her husband to Christianity until the fifteenth year of his reign, when he and his people were baptised by St Rémy Bishop of Reims[52]. Gregory of Tours records that Queen Clotilde became a nun at the church of St Martin at Tours after her husband died, and in a later passage records her death in Tours and burial in Paris next to her husband in the church which she had built[53]. She was canonised by the Catholic church, feast day 3 Jun[54]. King Clovis & his second wife had [six] children:MEDLANDS & http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY%20KINGS.htm#ChrotechildisO.

5. CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire/Lothar] ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Mrd).

6. THEODECHILDIS ([492/501]-576). A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" purports to be written when "filia mea…Theodechildis" was becoming a nun[133]. As noted above, the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores series assumes that this charter refers to the daughter of King Theoderich[134]. Another charter, classified as spurious, in the name of "Theodechildis filia Chlodoveo" purports to record a donation to the monastery of St Peter at Sens dated Sep 569[135]. She founded the monastery of Mauriac in Auvergne[136]. m ---, king.]

7. CHROTHIELDIS [Clotilde] ([502/11]-531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).

8. [daughter . The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius𠉪rnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[140]. This is the only reference so far found to this supposed daughter of King Clovis, whose existence should presumably therefore be treated with caution. The reference to her supposed grandson Arnold suggests some confusion with the sources which allege the existence of Bilichildis, possible daughter of King Clotaire I (see below). m --.]

Settipani (1989) is the main authority on the genealogy of the Merovingian and Carolingian Kings of France, and the pedigree shown here in Lineage 1, is from his work. Settipani's research was preceded by Kelley (1947), who utilized a ninth-century genealogy of Charlemagne to research a possible connection between Charlemagne and the Gallo-Roman rulers of Gaul, known as the Syagrii, who preceeded the Merovingian Kings. Settipani (1989, 2000) also investigated this connection, and his revision of it, with which Kelly concurs, is the basis for the hypothetical pedigree shown here in Lineage 2.

Unfortuntately, there are few contemporary documents against which to confirm these lineages. The main source is the History of the Franks, written in the late 6th century by Gregory of Tours. In addition, there is a mid-7th century document known as Chronicle of Fredegar that deals with the genealogy of the Merovingian kings, but the earlier generations appear to be based almost exclusively on Gregory of Tours. Furthermore, all subsequent chroniclers, in particular the oft-quoted 8th-century Liber Historiae Francorum, clearly draw from Gregory of Tours for the Merovingian parts of their pedigrees. http://www.mikesclark.com/genealogy/descent%20from%20antiquity.html

Considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty. The name Clovis would later evolve into the name "Louis," the most popular name for French kings.

This is Clovis the Great (died 511). Do not confuse him with Clovis the Riparian (died 428).

Clovis (c. 466�) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler. He was also the first Catholic King to rule over Gaul (France). He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. In 481, when he was fifteen, he succeeded his father.[1] The Salian Franks were one of two Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their center in an area known as Toxandria, between the Meuse and Scheldt (in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium). Clovis's power base was to the southwest of this, around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium. Clovis conquered the neighboring Salian Frankish kingdoms and established himself as sole king of the Salian Franks before his death. The small church in which he was baptized is now named Saint-Remi, and a statue of him being baptized by Saint Remigius can be seen there. Clovis and his wife Clotilde are buried in the St. Genevieve church (St. Pierre) in Paris. An important part of Clovis's legacy is that he reduced the power of the Romans in 486 by beating the Roman ruler Syagrius in the famous battle of Soissons.[2]

Clovis was converted to Catholicism, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Goths who ruled most of Gaul at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilde, a Burgundian Gothic princess who was a Catholic in spite of the Arianism which surrounded her at court. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

In primary sources Clovis's name is spelled in a number of variants: the Frankish form Chlodovech was Latinized as Chlodovechus, from which came the Latin name Ludovicus, which evolved into the French form Louis. Clovis ruled the Franks from 481 to 511 AD. The name features prominently in subsequent history: three other Merovingian Kings have been called Clovis, while nine Carolingian rulers and thirteen other French kings and one Holy Roman Emperor have been called Louis. Nearly every European language has developed its own spelling of his name. Louis (French), "Chlodwig" and Ludwig (German), Lodewijk (Dutch), Людовик (Russian), Luis (Spanish), Luigi (Italian), and Lewis (English) are just seven of the over 100 possible variations. Scholars differ about the exact meaning of his (first) name. Most believe that Chlodovech is composed out of the Germanic roots Chlod- and -vech. Chlod- = (modern English) loud, with its oldest connotation praised. -vech = "fighter" (modern English). Compare in modern Dutch luid (hard sound or noise), luiden (verb - the oldest meaning is: to praise aloud) and vechten (verb - to fight). Chlodovech means "praised fighter".[3]

[edit] Frankish consolidation

In 486, with the help of Ragnachar, Clovis defeated Syagrius, the last Roman official in northern Gaul, who ruled the area around Soissons in present-day Picardie.[4] This victory at Soissons extended Frankish rule to most of the area north of the Loire. After this, Clovis secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. He followed this victory with another in 491 over a small group of Thuringians east of the Frankish territories. Later, with the help of the other Frankish sub-kings, he narrowly defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac.

Clovis had previously married the Christian Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, according to Gregory of Tours, as a result of his victory at Tolbiac (traditionally set in 496), he converted to her Catholic faith. Conversion to Trinitarian Christianity set Clovis apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from heathen beliefs to Arian Christianity. It also ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul (507).

Clovis was baptised at Rheims on Christmas 496, 498 or 506 by Saint Remigius.[5] The conversion of Clovis to Catholic Christianity, the religion of the majority of his subjects, strengthened the bonds between his Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops, and their Germanic conquerors. Nevertheless, Bernard Bachrach has argued that this conversion from his Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. William Daly, in order more directly to assess Clovis's allegedly barbaric and pagan origins,[6] was obliged to ignore the bishop Saint Gregory of Tours and base his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century "vita" of Saint Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops and Theodoric.

In the "interpretatio romana", Gregory of Tours gave the Germanic gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury.[7] Taken literally, such usage would suggest a strong affinity of early Frankish rulers for the prestige of Roman culture, which they may have embraced as allies and federates of the Empire during the previous century.[citation needed]

Though he fought a battle at Dijon in the year 500, Clovis did not successfully subdue the Burgundian kingdom. It appears that he somehow gained the support of the Arvernians in the following years, for they assisted him in his defeat of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé (507) which eliminated Visigothic power in Gaul and confined the Visigoths to Hispania and Septimania the battle added most of Aquitaine to Clovis's kingdom.[4] He then established Paris as his capital,[4] and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Later it was renamed Sainte-Geneviève Abbey, in honor of the patron saint of Paris.[8]

According to Gregory of Tours, following the Battle of Vouillé, the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, granted Clovis the title of consul. Since Clovis's name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship.

Gregory of Tours recorded Clovis's systematic campaigns following his victory in Vouillé to eliminate the other Frankish "reguli" or sub-kings. These included Sigobert the Lame and his son Chlodoric the Parricide Chararic, another king of the Salian Franks Ragnachar of Cambrai, his brother Ricchar, and their brother Rignomer of Le Mans.

[edit] Later years and death

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orlບns to reform the church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orlບns. Thirty-three bishops assisted and passed thirty-one decrees on the duties and obligations of individuals, the right of sanctuary, and ecclesiastical discipline. These decrees, equally applicable to Franks and Romans, first established equality between conquerors and conquered.

Clovis I is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511 however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513.[9] After his death, he was put to rest in Pantheon in Paris who he let build as a gravethomb for the rulers of France, he was later moved to Saint Denis Basilica, in Paris.Here lies Aall the frenvh Kings exept for 3 of them.

Upon his death his realm was divided among his four sons: Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partitioning created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orlບns, Paris and Soissons and inaugurated a period of disunity which was to last, with brief interruptions, until the end (751) of his Merovingian dynasty.

Clovis is remembered for three main accomplishments:

By the first act, he assured the influence of his people beyond the borders of Gaul, something no petty regional king could accomplish. By the second act, he laid the foundations of a later nation-state: France. Finally, by the third act, he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.

Detracting perhaps, from this legacy, is his aforementioned division of the state. This was done not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst his sons after his death. While it may or may not have been his intention, this division was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. This precedent led in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns.[10] Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and church such that, when the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the Pope was sought first.

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also introduced Christianity.

He was the son of Childeric I and Basina.

At age 16, he succeeded his father, in the year 481.

The small church in which he was baptized is now named Saint Remy, and a statue of him being baptized by Remigius can be seen there. Clotiar I and his son Sigebert I were both buried in Soissons, St Waast.

Clovis himself and Clothilde are buried in the St. Genevieve church (St. Pierre) in Paris.

An important part of Clovis' legacy is that he reduced the power of the Romans in 486 by beating the Roman ruler Sygrius in the famous battle of Soissons.[2]

Clovis was converted to Western Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilda, a Burgundian. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

Clovis is remembered for three main accomplishments:

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also introduced Christianity. He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. At age 16, he succeeded his father, in the year 481[1] The Salian Franks were one of two Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their center in an area known as Toxandria, between the Meuse and Scheldt. Clovis' power base was to the southwest of this, around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, Clovis conquered the neighboring Salian Frankish kingdoms and established himself as sole king of the Salian Franks before his death. The small church in which he was baptized is now named Saint Remy, and a statue of him being baptized by Remigius can be seen there. Clotiar I and his son Sigebert I were both buried in Soissons, St Waast. Clovis himself and Clothilde are buried in the St. Genevieve church (St. Pierre) in Paris. An important part of Clovis' legacy is that he reduced the power of the Romans in 486 by beating the Roman ruler Sygrius in the famous battle of Soissons.[2]

Clovis was converted to Western Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilda, a Burgundian. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

Clovis had previously married the Christian Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, according to Gregory of Tours, as a result of his victory at Tolbiac (traditionally set in 496), he converted to her Catholic faith. Conversion to Christianity set Clovis apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from heathen beliefs to Arian Christianity. It also ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul (507).

Clovis was baptised at Reims on Christmas 496, 498 or 506 by Saint Remigius.[5] The conversion of Clovis to catholic Christianity.

Clovis I (c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler. He succeeded his father Childeric I in 481[1] as King of the Salian Franks, one of the Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their centre around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, in an area known as Toxandria. Clovis conquered the neighbouring Frankish tribes and established himself as sole king before his death.

He converted to Roman Catholicism, as opposed to the Arianism common among Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, the Burgundian Clotilda, a Catholic. He was baptized in the Cathedral of Rheims, as most future French kings would be. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of France and Western Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder both of France (which his state closely resembled geographically at his death) and the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

In 486, with the help of Ragnachar, Clovis defeated Syagrius, the last Roman official in northern Gaul, who ruled the area around Soissons in present-day Picardie.[2] This victory at Soissons extended Frankish rule to most of the area north of the Loire. After this, Clovis secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. He followed this victory with another in 491 over a small group of Thuringians east of the Frankish territories. Later, with the help of the other Frankish sub-kings, he narrowly defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac. He had previously married the Christian Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, following his victory at Tolbiac (traditionally set in 496), he converted to her Trinitarian Catholic faith. This set Clovis apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from heathen beliefs to Arian Christianity.

Chlodovech I (Frans Clovis, maar de naam is gelijk aan Lodewijk) ((Doornik, 465 - Parijs, 27 november 511) was koning der Franken. Hij was zoon van Childerik I,[1] een generaal van de Salische Franken, die vermoedelijk diende onder de Romeinse legeraanvoerder Aegidius en de West-Romeinse keizer Majorianus. Zijn moeder wordt door Gregorius van Tours Basina genoemd.[2]

Clovis I (c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler. He succeeded his father Childeric I in 481[1] as King of the Salian Franks, one of the Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their centre around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, in an area known as Toxandria. Clovis conquered the neighbouring Frankish tribes and established himself as sole king before his death.

He converted to Roman Catholicism, as opposed to the Arianism common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, the Burgundian Clotilda, a Catholic. He was baptized in the Cathedral of Rheims, as most future French kings would be. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of France and Western Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder both of France (which his state closely resembled geographically at his death) and the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

Clodoveo I (en francés Clovis) fue el rey de todos los francos del año 481 al 511. El nombre Clodoveo proviene del franco (antiguo alto-alemán) Hlodowig, compuesto por las ras hlod ("reconocido, famoso, ilustre") y wig ("combate"), quiere decir "Ilustre en el combate" o "Ilustre en la batalla", el equivalente en español moderno ser໚ Luis, nombre de la mayor໚ de los reyes de Francia, y en alemán Ludwig, también latinizado como Ludovico.

Frecuentemente utilizada por los Merovingios, la raíz hlod da también el origen a nombres como Clotario (y Lotario), Clodomir y Clotilde.

A finales del siglo V, Galia se encuentra dividida bajo la autoridad de varios pueblos bárbaros, constantemente en guerra los unos contra los otros, buscando extender sus influencias y sus posesiones:

Una multitud de poderes locales o regionales de origen militar hab໚n ocupado el vacío dejado por la deposición del Emperador Romano de Occidente en 476. Entre estos se encontraba aún el reino de un tal Siagrio, establecido en la región de Soissons.

En 481, Clodoveo, hijo del rey Childerico I y de la princesa Basina de Turingia, accedió al trono del reino franco salio, situado en la región de Tournai en la actual Bélgica. El título de rey no era nuevo, pues este era dado a los jefes de guerra de las naciones bárbaras al servicio de Roma. Así los francos, antiguos servidores de Roma, no eran nada menos que germanos, bárbaros paganos, alejados del modo de vida de los galos romanizados durante más o menos cinco siglos de dominación e influencia romana.

Clodoveo ten໚ solo quince años cuando se convirtió en el jefe de su tribu, su coronamiento dio inicio a la primera dinast໚ de reyes de Francia, los Merovingios, los cuales tomaron su nombre del abuelo de Clodoveo, el gran Meroveo.

El reino de Clodoveo se inscribe más bien en la continuidad de la antig� tard໚ que en la alta edad media según numerosos historiadores. No obstante contribuye formar el carผter original de este último período, dando inicio a una primera dinast໚ de reyes cristianos, y gracias a la aprobación de las elites galo-romanas, crea un poder central en Galia.

El 27 de noviembre de 511, muere en París a la edad de 45 años. Tras haber unificado prผticamente toda Francia, al morir, dejó sus estados repartidos entre sus cuatro hijos (Teodorico I, Childeberto I, Clodomiro I y Clotario I), siguiendo la norma del derecho privado.

Su reino pudo entonces ser dividido en cuatro partes consecuentes, tres similares y una cuarta más grande, que ocupaba más o menos el tercio de la Galia franca, para su hijo mayor, Teodorico, nacido de una unión pagana antes de 493. Clodoveo fue inhumado en la Basílica de los Santos Apóstoles.

Name: Clovis "Magnus" Merovingian , I

Given Name: Clovis "Magnus", I

"Merovingian dynasty" | "Childebert I" | "Clotilda, Saint" | "Clodomir" | "Merovech" |" Theodebald" | "Theodebert I" | "Theodoric I [Merovingian dynasty]"

- O'Hart1923 "The Lineal Descent of King Philip V., of Spain":p#42-3

PKD RUO-5466Cl11a 2001De02

Copyright (c) 2009 Paul K Davis [[email protected]] Fremont CA

Father: Childeric Merovingian , I b: 0437A

Marriage 1 Clotilda Burgundian,the

Marriage 2 Spouse Unknown

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also introduced Christianity. He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. At age 16, he succeeded his father, in the year 481.[1] The Salian Franks were one of two Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their center in an area known as Toxandria, between the Meuse and Scheldt. Clovis' power base was to the southwest of this, around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, Clovis conquered the neighboring Salian Frankish kingdoms and established himself as sole king of the Salian Franks before his death. The small church in which he was baptized is now named Saint Remy, and a statue of him being baptized by Remigius can be seen there. Clotiar I and his son Sigebert I were both buried in Soissons, St Waast. Clovis himself and Clothilde are buried in the St. Genevieve church (St. Pierre) in Paris. An important part of Clovis' legacy is that he reduced the power of the Romans in 486 by beating the Roman ruler Sygrius in the famous battle of Soissons.[2]

Clovis was converted to Western Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilda, a Burgundian. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

2.1 Frankish consolidation

In primary sources Clovis' name is spelled in a number of variants: The Frankish form Chlodovech was Latinized as Chlodovechus, from which came the Latin name Ludovicus, which evolved into the French form Louis. Clovis ruled the Franks from 481 to 511 AD. The name features prominently in subsequent history: Three other Merovingian Kings have been called Clovis, while nine Carolingian rulers and thirteen other French kings and one Holy Roman Emperor have been called Louis. Nearly every European language has developed its own spelling of his name. Louis (French), "Chlodwig" and Ludwig (German), Lodewijk (Dutch), Людовик (Russian), Luis (Spanish), Luigi (Italian), and Lewis (English) are just seven of the over 100 possible variations. Scholars differ about the exact meaning of his (first) name. Most believe that Chlodovech is composed out of the Germanic roots Chlod- and -vech. Chlod- = (modern English) loud, with its oldest connotation praised. -vech = "fighter" (modern English). Compare in modern Dutch luid (hard sound or noise), luiden (verb - the oldest meaning is: to praise aloud) and vechten (verb - to fight). Chlodovech means "praised fighter".[3]

[edit] Frankish consolidation

In 486, with the help of Ragnachar, Clovis defeated Syagrius, the last Roman official in northern Gaul, who ruled the area around Soissons in present-day Picardie.[4] This victory at Soissons extended Frankish rule to most of the area north of the Loire. After this, Clovis secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. He followed this victory with another in 491 over a small group of Thuringians east of the Frankish territories. Later, with the help of the other Frankish sub-kings, he narrowly defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac.

Clovis had previously married the Christian Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, according to Gregory of Tours, as a result of his victory at Tolbiac (traditionally set in 496), he converted to her Catholic faith. Conversion to Christianity set Clovis apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from heathen beliefs to Arian Christianity. It also ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul (507).

Clovis was baptised at Rheims on Christmas 496, 498 or 506 by Saint Remigius.[5] The conversion of Clovis to catholic Christianity, the religion of the majority of his subjects, strengthened the bonds between his Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops, and their Germanic conquerors. Nevertheless, Bernard Bachrach has argued that this conversion from his Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. William Daly, in order more directly to assess Clovis' allegedly barbaric and pagan origins,[6] was obliged to ignore the bishop Saint Gregory of Tours and base his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century "vita" of Saint Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops and Theodoric.

In the "interpretatio romana," Gregory of Tours gave the Germanic gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury.[7] Taken literally, such usage would suggest a strong affinity of early Frankish rulers for the prestige of Roman culture, which they may have embraced as allies and federates of the Empire during the previous century.[citation needed]

Though he fought a battle at Dijon in the year 500, Clovis did not successfully subdue the Burgundian kingdom. It appears that he somehow gained the support of the Arvernians in the following years, for they assisted him in his defeat of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé (507) which eliminated Visigothic power in Gaul and confined the Visigoths to Hispania and Septimania the battle added most of Aquitaine to Clovis' kingdom.[4] He then established Paris as his capital,[4] and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Later it was renamed Sainte-Geneviève Abbey, in honor of the patron saint of Paris.[8]

According to Gregory of Tours, following the Battle of Vouillé, the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, granted Clovis the title of consul. Since Clovis' name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship.

[show]v • d • eCampaigns of Clovis I

Soissons – Frankish-Thuringian – Tolbiac – Dijon – Vouillé

Gregory of Tours recorded Clovis' systematic campaigns following his victory in Vouillé to eliminate the other Frankish "reguli" or sub-kings. These included Sigobert the Lame and his son Chlodoric the Parricide Chararic, another king of the Salian Franks Ragnachar of Cambrai, his brother Ricchar, and their brother Rignomer of Le Mans.

[edit] Later years and death

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orlບns to reform the church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orlບns. Thirty-three bishops assisted and passed thirty-one decrees on the duties and obligations of individuals, the right of sanctuary, and ecclesiastical discipline. These decrees, equally applicable to Franks and Romans, first established equality between conquerors and conquered.

Tomb of Clovis I at the Basilica of St Denis in Saint Denis.Clovis I is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511 however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513.[9] After his death, he was interred in Saint Denis Basilica, Paris.

Upon his death his realm was divided among his four sons: Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partitioning created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orlບns, Paris and Soissons and inaugurated a period of disunity which was to last, with brief interruptions, until the end (751) of his Merovingian dynasty.

Clovis is remembered for three main accomplishments:

1.his unification of the Frankish nation,

2.his conquest of Gaul, and

3.his conversion to the Roman Catholic Faith.

By the first act, he assured the influence of his people beyond the borders of Gaul, something no petty regional king could accomplish. By the second act, he laid the foundations of a later nation-state: France. Finally, by the third act, he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.

Detracting perhaps, from this legacy, is his aforementioned division of the state. This was done not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst his sons after his death. While it may or may not have been his intention, this division was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. This precedent led in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns.[10] Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and church such that, when the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the Pope was sought first.

I. Chlodvig [szerkeszt%C3%A9s]

Ez az utolsó megtekintett változat (összes) elfogadva: 2009. szeptember 15.

I. Klodvig (Chlodvig, Chlodovech) (kb. 466� november 27., Párizs), a száli frank Meroving dinasztia egyik királya, apját, I. Childericet követte a trónon 481/482-ben.[1] A frankok száli törzsének területei ekkoriban a Rajna alsó folyásától nyugatra, a mai francia-belga határ mentén voltak, Tournai[2] és Cambrai központokkal.

486-ban Ragnachar segítségével Klodvig legyőzte Syagriust, Nyugat-Gallia utolsó római helytartóját,[1] akinek uralma Soisson környékére terjedt ki, azaz a mai Picardiára. E győzelemmel a Loire-tól északra fekvő területek túlnyomó része a frankok ellenőrzése alá került.[1] Helyzetét bebiztosítandó Klodvig megerősítette szövetségét a keleti gótokkal: testvérét, Audofledát feleségül adta Nagy Theodorik királyhoz. Ő maga 493-ban Clotilde burgund hercegnővel kötött házasságot.[1] 491-ben türingiaiak egy kis csoportjára mért vereséget északon, majd más frank törzsek vezetőivel közösen megverte az alemannokat a tolbiaci csatn.[forr%C3%A1s?]

497-ben[3] vagy 498-ban[1] felvette a katolikus kereszténységet,[1] szemben más germán népek (vizigótok, vandálok) királyaival, akik az ariánus hitet választották. Klodvig döntésének eredményeként megerős཭ött a kapcsolat a germán h༽ítók és a római katolikus hiten lévő megh༽ítottak között.[3] Bernard Bachrach ugyanakkor felhívja rá a figyelmet, hogy Klodvig katonai pozໜiója ezzel meggyengült, ugyanis a frank előkelők nem nézték jó szemmel a hitüktől való eltávolodását.

A dijoni csatn (500) sikertelen kísérletet tett a burgund királyság elfoglalására,[forr%C3%A1s?] de néhány évre sikerült elnyernie a burgundok támogatását, akik kés𕆻, az 507-es vouilléi csatn[1] segítségére voltak a toulouse-i vizigót királyság ellen. Győzelmével visszaszorította a vizigótokat az Ibériai-félszigetre és Aquitania nagy részét államához csatolta. Terjeszkedő birodalma székhelyének Párizst tette meg,[1] ahol a Szajna déli partján Szent Péternek és Szent Pálnak szentelt apátságot alapított. Az apátságot kés𕆻 Párizs vຝőszentjéről, Szent Genovéváról nevezték el[1] 1802-ben lerombolták, egyedül a román stílusú Klodvig-torony (Tour Clovis) maradt meg, amely ma a IV. Henrik Lum területén áll, a Panthéontól keletre.

A vouilléi csata után – Tours-i Szent Gergely történetíró szerint – I. Anasztáziusz bizánci császár konzuli címet adományozott Klodvignak, ám mivel neve nem szerepel a konzulok listáján, ez az adat bizonytalan. Szintén Gergely tudósít Klodvig vouilléi csata utáni hadjáratairól, melyek célja más frank vezetők eltávolítása:[forr%C3%A1s?] t󶮾k között Kölni Sigibert és fia, Chloderic Chararic, a száli frankok egy másik vezetője, Cambrai Ragnachar, valamint testvérei, Ricchar és Le Mans-i Rigomer.

Röviddel halála előtt, Klodvig zsinatra hívta össze Gallia püspökeit Orlບns-ba,[1] ahol egyházi reformokat kezdeményezett és megerősítette a korona és a püspöki kar közti köteléket. Kibocsátotta a Lex Salica-t, amely a megh༽ított vidéken a frank király hatalmát erősítette meg.[1]

I. Klodvig 511-ben halt meg,[1] a párizsi Saint-Denis-i apátságba temették el[1] (apja és a kori Meroving királyok nyughelye Tournai). Halála után négy fia (Theuderic, Chlodomer, Chidebert, Chlotar) felosztotta egymás közt a birodalmat: Reims, Orlບns, Párizs és Soissons központtal új politikai egységeket hoztak létre. Ezzel kezdetét vette a szétdaraboltság korszaka, mely – rövid kivételektől eltekintve – a Meroving-dinasztia uralmának végéig (751) fennállt.

A francia hagyomány a frankokat tartja az ország megalapítóinak, s mivel Klodvig volt az első, aki a majdani Franciaország területének túlnyomó részét elfoglalta, őt nevezik az első francia királynak.

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also brought them Christianity. He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. At age 16, he succeeded his father in 481[1] as King of the Salian Franks, one of the Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their centre around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, in an area known as Toxandria. Clovis conquered the neighbouring Frankish tribes and established himself as sole king before his death.

He converted to Catholic Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, the Burgundian Clotilda, a Catholic. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

In primary sources Clovis' name is spelled in a number of variants: The Frankish form Chlodovech was Latinised as Chlodovechus, from which came the Latin name Ludovicus, which evolved into the French form Louis. Clovis ruled the Franks from 481 to 511 AD. The name features prominently in subsequent history: Three other Merovingian Kings have been called Clovis, while nine Carolingian rulers and thirteen other French kings and one Holy Roman Emperor have been called Louis. Nearly every European language has developed its own spelling of his name. Louis (French), "Chlodwig" and Ludwig (German), Lodewijk (Dutch), Luis (Spanish), Luigi (Italian), and Lewis (English) are just six of the over 100 possible variations. Scholars differ about the exact meaning of his (first) name. Most believe that Chlodovech is composed out of the Germanic roots Chlod- and -vech. Chlod- = (modern English) loud, with its oldest connotation praised. -vech = "fighter" (modern English). Compare in modern Dutch luid (hard sound or noise), luiden (verb - the oldest meaning is: to praise aloud) and vechten (verb - to fight). Chlodovech means "praised fighter".[2]

In 486, with the help of Ragnachar, Clovis defeated Syagrius, the last Roman official in northern Gaul, who ruled the area around Soissons in present-day Picardie.[3] This victory at Soissons extended Frankish rule to most of the area north of the Loire. After this, Clovis secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. He followed this victory with another in 491 over a small group of Thuringians east of the Frankish territories. Later, with the help of the other Frankish sub-kings, he narrowly defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac. He had previously married the Christian Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, according to Gregory of Tours, as a result of his victory at Tolbiac (traditionally set in 496), he converted to her Catholic faith. This set Clovis apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from heathen beliefs to Arian Christianity. It also ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul (507).

Clovis was baptised at Reims on Christmas 496, 498 or 506 by Saint Remigius.[4] The conversion of Clovis to catholic Christianity, the religion of the majority of his subjects, strengthened the bonds between his Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops, and their Germanic conquerors. Nevertheless, Bernard Bachrach has argued that this conversion from his Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. William Daly, in order more directly to assess Clovis' allegedly barbaric and pagan origins,[5] was obliged to ignore the bishop Saint Gregory of Tours and base his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century "vita" of Saint Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops and Theodoric.

In the "interpretatio romana," Gregory of Tours gave the Germanic gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury.[6] Taken literally, such usage would suggest a strong affinity of early Frankish rulers for the prestige of Roman culture, which they may have embraced as allies and federates of the Empire during the previous century.[

Though he fought a battle at Dijon in the year 500, Clovis did not successfully subdue the Burgundian kingdom. It appears that he somehow gained the support of the Arvernians in the following years, for they assisted him in his defeat of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé (507) which eliminated Visigothic power in Gaul and confined the Visigoths to Hispania and Septimania the battle added most of Aquitaine to Clovis' kingdom.[3] He then established Paris as his capital,[3] and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Later it was renamed Sainte-Geneviève Abbey, in honor of the patron saint of Paris.[7]

According to Gregory of Tours, following the Battle of Vouillé, the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, granted Clovis the title of consul. Since Clovis' name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship. Gregory also records Clovis' systematic campaigns following his victory in Vouillé to eliminate the other Frankish "reguli" or sub-kings. These included Sigobert the Lame and his son Chlodoric the Parricide Chararic, another king of the Salian Franks Ragnachar of Cambrai, his brother Ricchar, and their brother Rignomer of Le Mans.

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orlບns to reform the church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orlບns.

Clovis I is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511 however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513.[8] After his death, he was interred in Saint Denis Basilica, Paris. Upon his death his realm was divided among his four sons: Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partitioning created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orlບns, Paris and Soissons and inaugurated a period of disunity which was to last, with brief interruptions, until the end (751) of his Merovingian dynasty.

Clovis is remembered for three main accomplishments : his unification of the Frankish nation, his conquest of Gaul, and his conversion to the Roman Catholic Faith. By the first act, he assured the influence of his people beyond the borders of Gaul, something no petty regional king could accomplish. By the second act, he laid the foundations of a later nation-state: France. Finally, by the third act, he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.

Detracting perhaps,from this legacy, his above mentioned division of the state, not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst his sons on his death, which may or may not have been his intention, was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. This precedent led in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns.[9] Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and church such that, when finally the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the Pope was sought first.

Daly, William M., "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum, 69:3 (1994), 619�.

James, Edward. The Origins of France: Clovis to the Capetians, 500�. Macmillan, 1982.

Kaiser, Reinhold. Das römische Erbe und das Merowingerreich. Enzyklopํie deutscher Geschichte 26. Munich: 2004.

Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918. London: Rivingtons, 1914.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-haired Kings. London: 1962.

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also introduced Christianity. He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. At age 16, he succeeded his father, in the year 481.

Clovis was converted to Western Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilda, a Burgundian. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

Clovis had previously married the Christian Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, according to Gregory of Tours, as a result of his victory at Tolbiac (traditionally set in 496), he converted to her Catholic faith. Conversion to Christianity set Clovis apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from heathen beliefs to Arian Christianity. It also ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul (507).

Clovis was baptised at Reims on Christmas 496, 498 or 506 by Saint Remigius.[5] The conversion of Clovis to catholic Christianity, the religion of the majority of his subjects, strengthened the bonds between his Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops, and their Germanic conquerors.

Upon his death his realm was divided among his four sons: Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partitioning created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orlບns, Paris and Soissons and inaugurated a period of disunity which was to last, with brief interruptions, until the end (751) of his Merovingian dynasty.

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also introduced Christianity. He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. At age 16, he succeeded his father, in the year 481.[1] The Salian Franks were one of two Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their center in an area known as Toxandria, between the Meuse and Scheldt (in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium). Clovis' power base was to the southwest of this, around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, Clovis conquered the neighboring Salian Frankish kingdoms and established himself as sole king of the Salian Franks before his death. The small church in which he was baptized is now named Saint Remy, and a statue of him being baptized by Remigius can be seen there. Clotiar I and his son Sigebert I were both buried in Soissons, St Waast. Clovis himself and Clothilde are buried in the St. Genevieve church (St. Pierre) in Paris. An important part of Clovis' legacy is that he reduced the power of the Romans in 486 by beating the Roman ruler Syagrius in the famous battle of Soissons.[2]

Clovis was converted to Western Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilda, a Burgundian. He was baptized in a small church which was on or near the site of the Cathedral of Rheims, where most future French kings would be crowned.

Clovis (c. 466-511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one king. He also introduced Christianity. He was the son of Childeric I and Basina. At age 16, he succeeded his father, in the year 481.[1] The Salian Franks were one of two Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their center in an area known as Toxandria, between the Meuse and Scheldt (in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium). Clovis' power base was to the southwest of this, around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, Clovis conquered the neighboring Salian Frankish kingdoms and established himself as sole king of the Salian Franks before his death. The small church in which he was baptized is now named Saint Remy, and a statue of him being baptized by Remigius can be seen there. Clotiar I and his son Sigebert I were both buried in Soissons, St Waast. Clovis himself and Clothilde are buried in the St. Genevieve church (St. Pierre) in Paris. An important part of Clovis' legacy is that he reduced the power of the Romans in 486 by beating the Roman ruler Syagrius in the famous battle of Soissons.[2]

Clovis was converted to Western Christianity, as opposed to the Arian Christianity common among the Germanic peoples at the time, at the instigation of his wife, Clotilda, a Burgundian.

Clovis I is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511 however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513.[9] After his death, he was interred in Saint Denis Basilica, Paris.

baptized 496 with sisters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clovis I (c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler. He succeeded his father Childeric I in 481[1] as King of the Salian Franks, one of the Frankish tribes who were then occupying the area west of the lower Rhine, with their centre around Tournai and Cambrai along the modern frontier between France and Belgium, in an area known as Toxandria. Clovis conquered the neighbouring Frankish tribes and established himself as sole king before his death.

He converted to Roman Catholicism, as opposed to the Arianism common among Germanic peoples, at the instigation of his wife, the Burgundian Clotilda, a Catholic. He was baptized in the Cathedral of Rheims, as most future French kings would be. This act was of immense importance in the subsequent history of France and Western Europe in general, for Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of the old Roman province of Gaul (roughly modern France). He is considered the founder both of France (which his state closely resembled geographically at his death) and the Merovingian dynasty which ruled the Franks for the next two centuries.

In primary sources Clovis' name is spelled in a number of variants: The Frankish form Chlodovech was Latinised as Chlodovechus, from which came the Latin name Clovis, which evolved into the French name Louis.

The name features prominently in subsequent history: Three other Merovingian Kings have been called Clovis, while nine Carolingian rulers and thirteen other French kings and one Holy Roman Emperor have been called Louis.

Nearly every European language has developed its own spelling of his name. Louis (French), "Chlodwig" and Ludwig (German), Lodewijk (Dutch), and Lewis (English) are just four of the over 100 possible variations.

Scholars differ about the meaning of his name. Chlodovech is composed out of the Germanic roots Chlod- and -vech, which are usually associated with "glow" and "soldier". His name thus might have meant "illustrious in combat" or "glorious warrior".

In 486, with the help of Ragnachar, Clovis defeated Syagrius, the last Roman official in northern Gaul, who ruled the area around Soissons in present-day Picardie.[2] This victory at Soissons extended Frankish rule to most of the area north of the Loire. After this, Clovis secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths, through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. He followed this victory with another in 491 over a small group of Thuringians east of his territories. Later, with the help of the other Frankish sub-kings, he defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac. He had previously married the Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and, following his victory at Tolbiac, he converted (traditionally in 496) to her Trinitarian Catholic faith. This was a significant change from the other Germanic kings, like the Visigoths and Vandals, who had embraced the rival Arian beliefs.

The conversion of Clovis to Catholic Christianity, the religion of the majority of his subjects, strengthened the bonds between his Roman subjects, led by their Catholic bishops, and their Germanic conquerors. However, Bernard Bachrach has argued that this conversion from his Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. William Daly, in order more directly to assess Clovis' allegedly barbaric and pagan origins,[3] was obliged to ignore the bishop Gregory of Tours and base his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century vita of Saint Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops and Theodoric.

In the familiar literary convention called interpretatio romana, Gregory of Tours gave the gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury.[4] Taken literally, such usage would suggest a strong affinity of early Frankish rulers for the prestige of Roman culture, which they may have embraced as allies and federates of the Empire during the previous century.[citation needed]

Though he fought a battle in Dijon in the year 500, Clovis did not successfully subdue the Burgundian kingdom. It appears that he somehow gained the support of the Arvernians in the following years, for they assisted him in his defeat of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé (507) which eliminated Visigothic power in Gaul and confined the Visigoths to Hispania the battle added most of Aquitaine to Clovis' kingdom.[2] He then established Paris as his capital,[2] and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Later the abbey was renamed in honor of Paris' patron saint, Geneviève.[5]

According to Gregory of Tours, following the Battle of Vouillé, Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, granted Clovis the title of consul. Since Clovis' name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship. Gregory also records Clovis' systematic campaigns following his victory in Vouillé to eliminate the other Frankish reguli or sub-kings. These included Sigobert the Lame and his son Chlodoric the Parricide Chararic, another king of the Salian Franks Ragnachar of Cambrai, his brother Ricchar, and their brother Rignomer of Le Mans.

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orlບns to reform the church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orlບns.

Clovis I died in 511 and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, whereas his father had been buried with the older Merovingian kings in Tournai. Upon his death his realm was divided among his four sons: Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partitioning created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orlບns, Paris and Soissons and inaugurated a period of disunity which was to last, with brief interruptions, until the end (751) of his Merovingian dynasty.

The legacy of Clovis is well-established on three heads: his unification of the Frankish nation, his conquest of Gaul, and his conversion to Roman Catholicism. By the first act, he assured the influence of his people in wider affairs, something no petty regional king could accomplish. By the second act, he laid the foundations of a later nation-state: France. Finally, by the third act, he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.

Detracting, perhaps, from these acts of more than just national importance, his division of the state, not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst the brothers on his death, which may or may not have been his intention, was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul and contributed in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern constantly repeated.[6] Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and church such that, when finally the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the pope was sought first.

^ The date 481 is arrived at by counting back from the Battle of Tolbiac, which Gregory of Tours places in the fifteenth year of Clovis' reign.

^ a b c Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests. BeerAdvocate. Retrieved on 2006-06-02.

^ Daly, William M. Daly, "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69.3 (July 1994:619-664)

^ Edward James, Gregory of Tours Life of the Fathers (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1985), p. 155 n. 12.

^ The abbey was demolished in 1802. All that remains is the Tour Clovis, a Romanesque tower which now lies within the grounds of the Lycພ Henri IV, just east of The Panthéon.

^ "The Rise of the Carolingians or the Decline of the Merovingians?" (pdf)

Daly, William M., "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69.3 (July 1994, pp. 619-664.

James, Edward. The Origins of France: Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000. Macmillan, 1982.

Kaiser, Reinhold. Das römische Erbe und das Merowingerreich. München 2004. (Enzyklopํie deutscher Geschichte 26)

Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918. Rivingtons: London, 1914.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-haired Kings. London, 1962.

The Oxford Merovingian Page.

Titles: King of the Franks (Roi des Francs)

Consul, Augustus [after 507]

Reign: 481 - November 27, 511

Consecration: Gregory of Tours mentioned some sort of consecration on occasion of accepting the title of consul from Emperor Anastasias (507, Tours)

End of reign: November 27, 511, died

Clovis was the son, and probably the only son, of Childeric I, king of the Salian Franks of Tournai, and Basina. He succeeded his father in 481.

At Soissons, in 486, Clovis defeated Syagrius, the last Roman ruler in Gaul. This opened to him the whole area of the Somme and the Seine. Clovis established his power at least as far south as Paris between the years 487 and 494. The Armoricans of western Gaul and the Germanic peoples of the Rhineland offered serious opposition and at the Loire he made contact with the Visigoths, protégés of Theodoric, the ruler of Ostrogothic Italy. In 496, he was baptized at Reims by Saint Remy.

In 507, Clovis turned against the Visigoths of Gaul south of the Loire and defeated them at Vouillé, near Poitiers. Though he penetrated as far south as Bordeaux and sent his son, Thierry (Theodoric), to capture the Visigoth capital of Toulouse, he did not expel the Goths from Septimania or turn southern Gaul into a settlement area for his people. According to Gregory of Tours (1), in 507 Clovis "received an appointment to the consulship from the emperor Anastasius, and in the church of the blessed Martin (in Tours) he clad himself in the purple tunic and chlamys, and placed a diadem on his head. and from that day he was called consul or Augustus." After he defeated other Frankish chiefs, Ragnachar, Sigibert, Chloderic, Chararic and others, Clovis virtually became the sole ruler of the Franks by 509. He summoned a church council at Orlບns and also promulgated Lex Salica.

Clovis died at the age of 45 and was buried in the Church of the Apostles, but his grave has never been found.

Son of Childeric, King of the Salic Franks born in the year 466 died at Paris, 27 November, 511. He succeeded his father as the King of the Franks of Tournai in 481. His kingdom was probably one of the States that sprang from the division of Clodion's monarchy like those of Cambrai, Tongres and Cologne. Although a Pagan, Childeric had kept up friendly relations with the bishops of Gaul, and when Clovis ascended the throne he received a most cordial letter of congratulation from St. Remigius, Archbishop of Reims. The young king early began his course of conquest by attacking Syagrius, son of Aegidius, the Roman Count. Having established himself at Soissons, he acquired sovereign authority over so great a part of Northern Gaul as to be known to his contemporaries as the King of Soissons. Syagrius, being defeated, fled for protection to Alaric II, King of the Visigoths, but the latter, alarmed by a summons from Clovis, delivered Syagrius to his conqueror, who had him decapitated in 486. Clovis then remained master of the dominions of Syagrius and took up his residence at Soissons. It would seem as if the episode of the celebrated vase of Soissons were an incident of the campaign against Syagrius, and it proves that, although a pagan, Clovis continued his father's policy by remaining on amicable terms with Gaulish episcopate. The vase, taken by the Frankish soldiers while plundering a church, formed part of the booty that was to be divided among the army. It was claimed by the bishop (St. Remigius?), and the king sought to have it awarded to himself in order to return it intact to the bishop, but a dissatisfied soldier split the vase with his battle-axe, saying to this king: "You will get only the share allotted you by fate". Clovis did not openly resent the insult, but the following year, when reviewing his army he came upon this same soldier and, reproving him for the the defective condition of his arms, he split his skull with an axe, saying: "It was thus that you treated the Soissons vase." This incident has often been cited to show that although in time of war a king has unlimited authority over his army, after the war his power is restricted and that in the division of booty the rights of the soldiers must be respected.

After the defeat of Syagrius, Clovis extended his dominion as far as the Loire. It was owing to the assistance given him by the Gaulish episcopate that he gained possession of the country. The bishops, it is quite certain mapped out the regime that afterwards prevailed. Unlike that adopted in other barbarian kingdoms founded upon the ruins of the Roman Empire, this regime established absolute equality between the Gallo-Roman natives and their Germanic conquerors all sharing the same privileges. Procopius, a Byzantine writer has given us an idea of this agreement, but we know it best by its results. There was no distribution of Gaulish territory by the victors established in the Belgian provinces, they had lands there to which they returned after each campaign. All the free men in the kingdom of Clovis, whether they were of Roman or of Germanic origin, called themselves Franks, and we must guard against the old mistake of looking upon the Franks after Clovis as no more than Germanic barbarians.

Master of half of Gaul, Clovis returned to Belgium and conquered the two Salic kingdoms of Cambrai and Tongres (?), where his cousins Ragnacaire and Chararic reigned. These events have been made known to us only through the poetic tradition of the Franks which has singularly distorted them. According to this tradition Clovis called upon Chararic to assist him its his war against Syagrius, but Chararic's attitude throughout the battle was most suspicious, as he refrained from taking sides until he saw which of the rivals was to be victorious. Clovis longed to have revenge. Through a ruse he obtained possession of Chararic and his son and threw them into prison he then had their heads shaved, and both were ordained, the father to the priesthood and the son to the diaconate. When Chararic bemoaned and wept over this humiliation his son exclaimed: "The leaves of a green tree have been cut but they will quickly bud forth again may he who has done this perish as quickly!" This remark was reported to Clovis, and he had both father and son beheaded.

Tradition goes on to say that Ragnacaire King of Cambrai, was a man of such loose morals he hardly respected his own kindred, and Farron, his favourite, was equally licentious. So great was the king's infatuation for this man that, if given a present, he would accept it for himself and his Farron. This filled his subjects with indignation and Clovis, to win them over to his side before taking the field, distributed among them money, bracelets, and baldries, all in gilded copper in fraudulent imitation of genuine gold. On different occasions Ragnacaire sent out spies to ascertain the strength of Clovis's army, and upon returning they said: "It is a great reinforcement for you and your Farron." Meanwhile Clovis advanced and the battle began. Being defeated, Ragnacaire sought refuge in flight, but was overtaken made prisoner, and brought to Clovis, his hands bound behind him. "Why", said his conqueror have you permitted our blood to be humiliated by allowing yourself to be put in chains? It were better that you should die." And, so saying, Clovis dealt him his death-blow. Then, turning to Richaire, Ragnacaire's brother, who had been taken prisoner with the king, he said: "Had you but helped your brother, they would not have bound him", and he slew Richaire also. After these deaths the traitors discovered that they had been given counterfeit gold and complained of it to Clovis, but he only laughed at them. Rignomir, one of Ragnacaire's brothers, was put to death at Le Mans by order of Clovis, who took possession of the kingdom and the treasure of his victims.

Such is the legend of Clovis it abounds in all kinds of improbabilities, which cannot be considered as true history. The only facts that can be accepted are that Clovis made war upon Kings Ragnacaire and Chararic, put them to death and seized their territories. Moreover, the author of this article is of opinion that these events occurred shortly after the conquest of the territory of Syagrius, and not after the war against the Visigoths, as has been maintained by Gregory of Tours, whose only authority is an oral tradition, and whose chronology in this matter is decidedly misleading. Besides Gregory of Tours has not given us the name of Chararic's kingdom it was long believed to have been established at Therouanne but it is more probable that Tongres was its capital city, since it was here that the Franks settled on gaining a foothold in Belgium.

In 492 or 493 Clovis, who was master of Gaul from the Loire to the frontiers of the Rhenish Kingdom of Cologne, married Clotilda, the niece of Gondebad, King of the Burgundians. The popular epic of the Franks has transformed the story of this marriage into a veritable nuptial poem the analysis of which will be found in the article on Clotilda. Clotilda, who was a Catholic, and very pious, won the consent of Clovis to the baptism of their son, and then urged that he himself embrace the Catholic Faith. He deliberated for a long time. Finally, during a battle against the Alemanni--which without apparent reason has been called the battle of Tolbiac (Zulpich)--seeing his troops on the point of yielding, he invoked the aid of Clotilda's God, promised to become a Christian if only victory should be granted him. He conquered and, true to his word was baptized at Reims by St. Remigius, bishop of that city, his sister Albofledis and three thousand of his warriors at the same time embracing Christianity. Gregory of Tours, in his ecclesiastical history of the Franks has described this event, which took place amid great pomp at Christmas, 496. "Bow thy head, O Sicambrian", said St. Remigius to the royal convert "Adore what thou hast burned and burn what thou hast adored." According to a ninth-century legend found in the life of St. Remigius, written by the celebrated Hincmar himself Archbishop of Reims, the chrism for the baptismal ceremony was missing and was brought from heaven in a vase (ampulla) borne by a dove. This is what is known as the Sainte Ampoule of Reims, preserved in the treasury of the cathedral of that city and used for the coronation of the kings of France from Philip Augustus down to Charles X.

The conversion of Clovis to the religion of the majority of his subjects soon brought about the union of the Gallo-Romans with their barbarian conquerors. While in all the other Germanic kingdoms founded on the ruins of the Roman Empire the difference of religion between the Catholic natives and Arian conquerers was a very active cause of destruction, in the Frankish kingdom, on the contrary, the fundamental identity of religious beliefs and equality of political rights made national and patriotic sentiments universal and produced the most perfect harmony between the two races. The Frankish Kingdom was thenceforth the representative and defender of Catholic interests throughout the West, while to his conversion Clovis owed an exceptionally brilliant position. Those historians who do not understand the problems of religious psychology have concluded that Clovis embraced Christianity solely from political motives, but nothing is more erroneous. On the contrary, everything goes to prove that his conversion was sincere, and the opposite cannot be maintained without refusing credence to the most trustworthy evidence.

In the year 500 Clovis was called upon to mediate in a quarrel between his wife's two uncles, Kings Gondebad of Vienne and Godegisil of Geneva. He took sides with the latter, whom he helped to defeat Gondebad at Dijon, and then, deeming it prudent to interfere no further in this fratricidal struggle, he returned home, leaving Godegisil an auxiliary corps of five thousand Franks. After Clovis's departure Gondebad reconquered Vienne, his capital in which Godegisil had established himself. This reconquest was effected by a stratagem seconded by treachery, and Godegisil himself perished on the same occasion. The popular poetry of the Franks has singularly misrepresented this intervention of Clovis, pretending that, at the instigation of his wife Clotilda, he sought to avenge her grievances against her uncle Gondebad (see CLOTILDA) and that the latter king, besieged in Avignon by Clovis, got rid of his opponent through the agency of Aredius, a faithful follower. But in these poems there are so many fictions as to render the history in them indistinguishable.

An expedition, otherwise important and profitable was undertaken by Clovis in the year 506 against Alaric II, King of the Visigoths of Aquitaine. He was awaited as their deliverer by the Catholics of that kingdom, who were being cruelly persecuted by Arian fanatics, and was encouraged in his enterprise by the Emperor Anastasius, who wished to crush this ally of Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths. Despite the diplomatic efforts made by the latter to prevent the war, Clovis crossed the Loire and proceeded to Vouille, near Poitiers, where he defeated and slew Alaric, whose demoralized troops fled in disorder. The Franks took possession of the Visigoth Kingdom as far as the Pyrenees and the Rhone, but the part situated on the left bank of this river was stoutly defended by the armies of Theodoric, and thus the Franks were prevented from seizing Arles and Provence. Notwithstanding this last failure, Clovis, by his conquest of Aquitaine, added to the Frankish crown the fairest of its jewels. So greatly did the Emperor Anastasius rejoice over the success attained by Clovis that, to testify his satisfaction, he sent the Frankish conqueror the insignia of the consular dignity, an honour always highly appreciated by the barbarians.

The annexation of the Rhenish Kingdom of Cologne crowned the acquisition of Gaul by Clovis. But the history of this conquest, also, has been disfigured by a legend that Clovis instigated Chloderic, son of Sigebert of Cologne, to assassinate his father, then, after the perpetration of this foul deed, caused Chloderic himself to be assassinated, and finally offered himself to the Rhenish Franks as king, protesting his innocence of the crimes that had been committed. The only historical element in this old story, preserved by Gregory of Tours, is that the two kings of Cologne met with violent deaths, and that that Clovis, their relative, succeeded them partly by right of birth, partly by popular choice. The criminal means by which he is said to have reached this throne are pure creation of the barbarian imagination.

Master now of a vast kingdom, Clovis displayed the same talent in governing that he had displayed in conquering it. From Paris, which he had finally made his capital, he administered the various provinces through the agency of counts (comites) established in each city and selected by him from the aristocracy of both races, conformably to the principle of absolute equality between Romans and barbarians, a principle which dominated his entire policy. He caused the Salic Law (Lex Salica) to be reduced to written form, revised end adapted to the new social conditions under which his fellow barbaricans were subsequently to live. Acknowledging the Church as the foremost civilizing force, he protected it in every way possible, especially by providing for it the National Council of Orleans (511), at which the bishops of Gaul settled many questions pertaining to the relations between Church and state. Hagiographic legends attribute to Clovis the founding of a great many churches and monasteries throughout France, and although the accuracy of this claim cannot be positively established, it is nevertheless certain that the influence of the council in this matter must have been considerable. However, history has preserved the memory of foundation which was undoubtedly due to Clovis: the church of the Apostles, later of Sainte-Geneviève, on what was then Mons Lucotetius, to the south of Paris. The king destined it as a mausoleum for himself and his queen Clotilda, and before it was completed his mortal remains were there interred. Clovis died at the age of forty-five. His sarcophagus remained in the crypt of Sainte-Geneviève until the time of the French Revolution, when it was broken open by the revolutionists, and his ashes scattered to the winds, the sanctuary of the beautiful church being destroyed.

The history of this monarch has been so hopelessly distorted by popular poetry and so grossly disfigured by the vagaries of the barbarian imagination as make the portrayal of his character wellneigh impossible. However, from authentic accounts of him it may be concluded that his private life was not without virtues. As a statesman he succeeded in accomplishing what neither the genius of Theodoric the Great nor that of any contemporary barbarian king could achieve: upon the ruins of the Roman Empire he built up a powerful system, the influence of which dominated European civilization during many centuries, and from which sprang France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland, without taking into account that northern Spain and northern Italy were also, for a time, under the civilizing regime of the Frankish Empire.

Clovis left four sons. Theodoric, the eldest, was the issue of union prior to that contracted with Clotilda, who was, however, the mother of the three others, Clodomir, Childebert, and Clotaire. They divided their father's kingdom among themselves, following the barbarian principle that sought promotion of personal rather than national interests, and looked upon royalty as the personal prerogative of the sons of kings. After the death of Clovis his daughter Clotilda, named after her mother, married Amalric, king of the Visigoths. She died young, being cruelly abused by this Arian prince, who seemed eager to wreak vengeance on the daughter of Clovis for the tragic death of Alaric II.

King Clovis I "the Great" AKA King of the Salic Franks (481-511), King of France.

Clovis I (or Chlodowech, modern French "Louis") (c.466 - November 27 , 511 at Paris ), a member of the Merovingian dynasty, succeeded his father Childeric I in 481 as King of the Salic Franks , a Germanic people occupying the area west of the lower Rhine , with their own center around Tournai and Cambrai , along the modern frontier between France and Belgium , in an area known as Toxandria

In 486 , with the help of Ragnachar, Clovis defeated Syagrius , the last Roman official in northern Gaul , whose rule covered the area around Soissons , in present-day Picardie . This victory extended Frankish rule to most of the area north of the Loire . After this, Clovis secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths , through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great . He followed this victory with another in 491 over a small group of Thuringians east of his territories, then later, with the help of the other Frankish sub-kings, defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac . He had previously married the Burgundian princess Clotilde (493), and following his victory at Tolbiac he converted in 496 to her Catholic faith. This was a significant change from the other Germanic kings, like the Visigoths and Vandals , who embraced the rival Arian beliefs.

The conversion of Clovis to Roman Catholic Christianity , the religion of the majority of his subjects, strengthened the bonds between his Roman subjects and their Germanic conquerors. However, Bernard Bachrach has argued that this conversion from his Frankish pagan beliefs alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings, and weakened his military position over the next few years.

He fought a battle in Dijon in the year 500, but did not successfully subdue the Burgundian kingdom. It appears that he somehow gained the support of the Armoricans in the following years, for they assisted him in his defeat of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse at Vouillé (507), a victory that confined the Visigoths to Spain , adding most of Aquitaine to his kingdom. He then established Paris as his capital, and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. All that remains of this great abbey (later named in honour of Paris' patron saint, Geneviève, it was demolished in 1802) is the Tour Clovis, a Romanesque tower which now lies within the grounds of the prestigious Lycຎ Henri IV, just east of The Panthéon .

Following the Battle of Vouillé , according to Gregory of Tours , the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I , granted Clovis the title of consul . Since Clovis' name does not appear in the consular lists , it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship. Gregory also records Clovis' systematic campaigns following his victory at Vouillé to elimate the other Frankish reguli or sub-kings: these included Sigibert of Cologne and his son Chloderic Chararic another king of the Salian Franks Ragnachar of Cambrai , his brother Ricchar, and their brother Rigomer of LeMans .

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet at Orleans to reform the church and create a strong link between the crown and the Catholic episcopate.

Clovis I died in 511 and is interred Saint Denis Basilica , Paris, France , whereas his father had been buried with the older Merovingian kings at Tournai. Upon his death, his realm was divided among his four sons, (Theuderic_I_of_Austrasia, Chlodomer , Childebert _I, Chlothar ) creating the new political units of the Kingdoms of Reims , Orlບns , Paris and Soissons , inaugurating a period of disunity which was to last with brief interruptions until the end (751 ) of his Merovingian dynasty.

Popular tradition, based on French royal tradition, holds that the Franks were the founders of the French nation, and that Clovis was therefore the first King of France.

He reigned from 481 to 511. His wife led him to embrace Christianity and 3000 of his followers were baptised in a single day. When he first listened to the story of Christ's crucifixion, he was so moved that he cried "If I had been there with my valiant Franks I would have avenged Him." (Came to throne at about age 15.

. Chlodovech (aka Clovis) acceded 481 - King of Tournai. 2. Excerpt from "The Franks" by Godefroi Kurth, Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler, from "The Catholic Encyclopedia", Volume VI, Copyright (c) 1909 by Robert Appleton Company, Online Edition Copyright (c) 1999 by Kevin Knight, Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York (full text in Clodian's notes): When Clovis (Chlodovech I) began to reign in 481, he was, like his father, King of Tournai only, but at an early date he began his career of conquest. In 486 he over threw the monarchy that Syagrius, son of Aegidius, had carved out for himself in Northern Gaul, and set up his court at Soissons in 490 and 491 he took possession of the Salian Kingdoms of Cambrai and Tongres in 496 he triumphantly repelled an invasion of the Alamanni in 500 he interposed in the war of the Burgundian kings in 506 he conquered Aquitaine and at length he annexed the Ripuarian Kingdom of Cologne. Henceforth Gaul, from the Pyrenees to the Rhine, was subject to Clovis (Chlodovech I), with the exception of the territory in the southeast, i.e. the kingdom of the Burgundians and Provence. Established at Paris, Clovis (Chlodovech I) governed this kingdom by virtue of an agreement concluded with the bishops of Gaul, according to which natives and barbarians were to be on terms of equality, and all cause of friction between the two races was removed when, in 496, the king was converted to Catholicism. The Frankish kingdom thereupon took its place in history under more promising conditions than were to be found in any other state founded upon the ruins of the Roman Empire. All free men bore the title of Frank, had the same political status, and were eligible to the same offices. Besides, each individual observed the law of the people among whom he belonged the Gallo-Roman lived according to the code, the barbarian according to the Salian or Ripuarian law in other words, the law was personal, not territorial. If there were any privileges they belonged to the Gallo-Romans, who, in the beginning were the only ones on whom the episcopal dignity was conferred. The king governed the provinces through his counts, and had a considerable voice in the selection of the clergy. The drawing up of the Salian Law (Lex Salica), which seems to date from the early part of the reign of Clovis (Chlodovech I), and the Council of Orlບns, convoked by him and held in the last year of his reign, prove that the legislative activity of this king was not eclipsed by his military energy. Although founder of a kingdom destined to such a brilliant future, Clovis (Chlodovech I) did not know how to shield it against a custom in vogue among the barbarians, i.e. the division of power among the sons of the king. This custom originated in the pagan idea that all kings were intended to reign because they were descended from the gods. Divine blood flowed in the veins of all the king's sons, each of whom, therefore, being a king by birth, must have his share of the kingdom. This view, incompatible with the formation of a powerful, durable monarchy, had been vigorously rejected by Genseric the Vandal, who, to secure the indivisibility of his kingdom, had established in his family a certain order of succession. Either because he died suddenly or for some other reason, Clovis (Chlodovech I) took no measures to abolish this custom, which continued among the Franks until the middle of the ninth century and, more than once, endangered their nationality. After the death of Clovis (Chlodovech I), therefore, his four sons divided his kingdom, each reigning from a different centre: Thierry (Theuderic I) at Metz, Clodomir (Chlodomer) at Orlບns, Childebert at Paris, and Clotaire (Chlotar) at Soissons. They continued the career of conquest inaugurated by their father, and, in spite of the frequent discords that divided them, augmented the estates he had left them. The principal events of their reign were: * The destruction of the Kingdom of Thuringia by Thierry (Theuderic I) in 531, which extended Frankish power into the heart of what is now Germany * the conquest of the Kingdom of the Burgundians by Childebert and Clotaire (Chlotar I) in 532, after their brother Clodomir (Chlodomer) had perished in a previous attempt to overthrow it in 524 * the cession of Provence to the Franks by the Ostrogoths in 536, on condition that the former would assist them in the war just declared against them by Emperor Justinian. But instead of helping the Ostrogoths, the Franks under Theudebert, son of Thierry (Theuderic I), taking shameful advantage of this oppressed people, cruelly pillaged Italy until the bands under the command of Leuthar and Butilin were exterminated by Narses in 553.

Other SOURCES: Founder of the Empire of the Franks "Rulers of the World" by R.F.Tapsell Born: circa 466, son of Childeric I, King des Francs and Basine Andovera de Turinge , Clovis I became King between the Summer of 481 and Autumn of 482. According to Gregoire de Tours, he was only about 15 years of age at the time. In any case he was quite young as he was called "juvenis". Timelines here are bound to be fraught with error since the custom of counting years from the time of Jesus Christ was not established until the 8th. Century. Thus, both the Larousse and the History of France assert a birth date circa 466 whereas Stuart's "Royalty for Commoners" claims Clovis I was alive in the year 420! That date is necessary to claim that Sigebert I is the son of Childebert, son of Clovis, since Stuart claims Sigebert I was King of the Salic Francs from 481 to 511. Significant-Other: Evochilde before 486 - Evochilde was a concubine. Note - between 486 and 507: King of the Franks, Clovis I vanquished the Romans at Soissons in 486. Syagrius, the "Roman King" takes refuge in Toulouse under the protection of the King of the Wisigoths, Alaric [who had just become King in 484] . By the end of the year, Clovis I forced Alaric to give up Syagrius, and Clovis I secretly has Syagrius put to death. From 487 to 490, Clovis I extended his kingdom all the way to the Loire River, however, he respects the border of the Wisigoths to the South and of the Burgundians to the South-West, as well as that of the riparian Francs to the East. From 490 to 495, Clovis is occupied with the liquidation of the Salic Franc dynasty North of Gaule. King Chararic of Tongres is decapitated, and King Ragnacaire of Cambrai is executed. Upon the request for aid from the Riparian Francs, Clovis I defeats the Alamans (Germans) at the Battle of Tolbiac in 496 thus bringing Champagne under his jurisdiction. In 500, he wages war against Gondebaud, King of Burgundy defeating him near Dijon. Gondebaud retreats to Avignon. In 502, on the Cure and the Cousin, Clovis I and Gondebaud seal an alliance. From April to June 507, the French Army attack the Wisigoths, whose Kingdom extends from the Mediterranean to the ocean, and cross the Loire, going up the Valley of Calin toward Poitiers and encounter the Visigoth Army in the plain of Vouille, 15 km West of Clain. Alaric II, King of the Visigoths is killed and the Wisigoths thus are defeated. by 507, thanks to the efforts of his son, Thierry, the entire Meridional Gaule falls into Clovis I's control. In 508, the Franc Army lays siege on Arles in order to secure Provence. Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, occupies Provence, and his general, Ibbas, crosses the Alps to deliver Arles from Clovis I's clutch. Theodoric conquers the Burgundians at Avignon and Orange and makes Amalaric, his grandson and son of Alaric II, King of the Wisigoths. Clovis I loses the Bas-Languedoc, then called Septimania. Around 510, Clovis has Cloderic, King of the Riparian tribes who had fought in his support at Vouille, assassinated, and proclaims himself King of the Riparians. Thus, the Kingdom extends from the Pyrenees, to the ocean to beyond the Rhine. Upon his death, according to Frankish custom, his kingdom was divided among his four sons: Thierry, Clodomir, Childebert and Clotaire. Married circa 493: Sainte Clotilde de Bourgogne , daughter of Chilperic, King de Bourgogne and N? Clotilde was a Merovingien. By the time Clovis I married her, he already had a son through his concubine. Clotilde contributed to the conversion of Clovis to Christianity. After his death, she retired to the monastery of Saint-Martin in Tours (France). Her Feast Day is 3 June. Baptized: on 25 December 496 When the Queen, Clotilde, convinced Clovis I to have their son Ingomer baptized, he relented. Shortly afterwards, the son died, and Clovis I scolded Clotilde indicating that had Ingomer been consecrated to his gods, the neonate would not have died. When Clotilde had Clodomir, she again prevailed on Clovis I to have his son baptized. The child fell seriously ill shortly after, and again Clovis I blamed Clotilde's gods. While at war with the Alamans, it looked like Clovis I's army might be defeated, and Clovis I in desperation, swore to God and to Jesus Christ that he would have himself baptized and adhere to the Faith, if only he would be granted victory. Thereupon, the Allemans, fled and their King was killed. The Allemans surrendered. Scolars disagree on the date of the baptism and some indicate it was in 497 or propose the year 498 and perhaps even in 506.

Clovis Continued: Clovis I was baptized by Remi, Bishop of Reims, with the intercession of the Queen. Clovis I's army of 3,000 also was baptized, as well as Clovis I's sister, Alboflede. Unfortunately, she died shortly thereafter. Another sister of Clovis I, Lantilde, also was baptized from the Arian faith into Christianity. Died: on 27 December 511 in Paris, Gaul, Clovis I's body was burried at the basilica on the hill South of the Isle of the City on the left bank, where Saint Genevieve's body also reposes. Epitaph, written by Cardinal de La Rochfoucauld in 1621: CODOVEO MAGNO REGNUM FRANCORUM PRIMO CHRISTIANO HUJUS BASILICAE FUNDATORI SEPULCRUM VULGARI OLIM LAPIDE STRUCTUM ABBAS ET CONVENTUS IN MELIOREM OPERE CULTUQUE FACIEM RENOVARUNT ANNO CHRISTI 1621



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