Pedro Navarro, count of Oliveto, c.1460-1528

Pedro Navarro, count of Oliveto, c.1460-1528

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Pedro Navarro, count of Oliveto, c.1460-1528

Pedro Navarro, count of Oliveto (c.1469-1528) was a highly successful Spanish engineer who entered French service after the Spanish government refused to pay his ransom after he was captured at the battle of Ravenna in 1512.

Navarro was born in the Roncal valley in around 1460. His early career is unclear, but he is known to have served under Cardinal Juan de Aragon before 1485 and then moved to Italy, where he served as a condottiere. During this period he is known to have fought against the Barbary pirates and is also said to have taken part in the 1487 siege of Sarzanello, where he witnessed the failure of an early attempt to destroy fortifications with a gunpowder mine.

In 1499 Navarro entered the service of Gonzalo de Cordoba, the 'Grand Captain'. He took part in Cordoba's attack on the Turkish fortress of Cephalonia in 1500, where he demonstrated his skills as siege engineer, using mines to breach the walls.

In 1501 France and Spain invaded the kingdom of Naples, which they had agreed to split between them (Second Italian War). The initial conquest went well, but the allies soon fell out and open war broke out between them. At first the Spanish were forced onto the defensive. While Cordoba was besieged in Barletta in Apulia (August 1502-April 1503), Navarro defended Canosa (1502) and then Taranto (1503). He rejoined the main Spanish field army when Cordoba received reinforcements and decided to go onto the offensive. He advanced to Cerignola, where Navarro built a series of field fortifications. When the French attacked the new Spanish position they suffered a heavy defeat (battle of Cerignola, 28 April 1503) and were forced to go onto the defensive while they awaited reinforcements.

This gave Navarro time to capture most of the French-held castles in the kingdom, although the fortress of Gaeta held out against him. His most dramatic success came at the castle of Uovo, where he spent three weeks digging a tunnel through the rocks under the castle. On 26 June the mine was exploded, destroying the chapel and killing the governor and his council, who were using it as a meeting room. The surviving defenders immediately surrendered.

The French were finally reinforced and a standoff developed on the Garigliano River. Once again Cordoba eventually went onto the offensive, and once again Navarro played a part in the Spanish victory (battle of the Garigliano, 28-29 December 1503). He was created Count of Oliveto for his part in this victory. After the battle Gaeta finally surrendered to the Spanish.

In 1507 Navarro returned to Spain, but a short time later he joined Cardinal Jimenes de Cisneros' expedition to North Africa, serving as the Cardinals' military commander. In 1508 he built a floating battery that helped with the capture of Veléz de la Gomera, then a rocky island off the Moroccan coast being used as a pirate base. The island remained in Spanish hands until 1522 but was recaptured again in 1564 and is still ruled by Spain.

In 1509 Navarro took part in the capture of Mazalquivir (Mers el Kebir) and Oran. In 1510 he commanded the Spanish army that captured Bougie (after a siege), Algiers and Tlemcen (both surrendered) and Tripoli (by assault). He then suffered a defeat on the island of Gelves (August 1510), which ended his conquests.

In 1511 he returned to Italy to fight in the War of the Holy League (1510-14), serving under Ramon de Cardona. Early in 1512 he took part in the failed Spanish siege of Bologna. His engineers dug a mine that reached the Castiglione Gate, but the defenders sank a shaft into his mine chamber. When the mine was exploded this shaft reduced the blast and the wall survived.

The siege was then lifted by the gifted French commander Gaston de Foix. The Spanish retreated, and Gaston advanced to besiege Ravenna. This triggered an Imperial counterattack, leading to the battle that Gaston had hoped for. Navarro provided some mobile artillery for the Imperial army by mounting light guns on carts, and also commanded the Spanish infantry during the battle of Ravenna (11 April 1512). Despite this innovation the battle ended as a major French victory, marred by the death of Gaston late in the day.

Navarro was captured during the battle. Despite his impressive record King Ferdinand of Spain refused to pay his ransom. Navarro eventually decided to join the French service, bringing not only his engineering skills, but also his contacts on the Spanish border, which allowed him to recruit troops for Francis I's first invasion of Italy. In June 1515 he helped Francis I invade Italy across the rarely used Argentière Pass. He fought at Francis's great victory of Marignano (13-14 September 1515) and then helped capture the castle of Milan.

Navarro was still in French service during the First Hapsburg-Valois War of 1521-26. He fought at the French defeat of La Bicocca (27 April 1522), and then retreated to Genoa, where he was captured soon afterwards. He thus missed the massive French defeat at Pavia in 1525. He was released after the Treaty of Madrid of 1526, which ended the war, but Francis renounced the treaty immediately after his release, triggering the Second Hapsburg-Valois War (1526-30).

In 1527 Marshal Odet de Foix, Count of Lautrec, led a French army into Italy. Navarro was present with this army, but was captured later in the same year and was imprisoned in the Neapolitan castle of Castel Nuovo, where he died in 1528.

Tripoli History

Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who gave it the name of Oea. They didn&rsquot stay long, however, and Oea became part of Cyrenaica, a Greek colony that occupied much of modern Libya and Egypt.

Next came invasion from Carthaginians, and by 2BC, the city was firmly under Roman control. They renamed it Leptis Magna and it became the main city in the Roman province of Regio Tripolitana. Leptis Magna flourished, with the Romans building amphitheatres, triumphal arches and palaces on the site.

When the Romans retreated, the Vandals took over, but only managed to stay until 642AD when the Fatmid dynasty began to rule the city from their seat in Cairo.

When they were toppled, Tripoli too fell into Mamluk hands. Later, it became part of the Berber Almohad Empire and of the Hafsids kingdom before being taken over by the Ottomans in the 1600s.

Briefly, it was claimed for Spain in 1510 by Don Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto before being assigned to the Knights of St John in 1523, who had been asked to prevent it from being used as a base for piracy. Ousted by Ottoman pasha Turgut Reis in 1551, Tripoli once more became a hub for pirates.

When the Italians invaded in 1911, Ottoman rule ended for good. The Italians took control and later merged Tripoli and its provinces with other Italian holdings in North Africa to create the modern state of Libya.

During WWII, the city was attacked by the British Eighth Army, falling in January 1943 and remaining a British possession until 1951 when it was given independence with the rest of Libya.

A period of rule by the often bizarre and even more frequently bloodthirsty Colonel Gadaffi followed. Today, as a result of the uprising that ousted the Colonel in 2011, Tripoli&rsquos future looks more uncertain than ever.

Did you know?
&bull Tripoli is nicknamed the Bride of the Sea.
&bull The Romans erected the Arch of Aurelius in Tripoli in 165 to commemorate victory over the Parthians.
&bull In the 16th century, King Charles V of Spain gave Tripoli to the Knights Hospitaller in exchange for one Maltese falcon a year.

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The 300 Greatest Commanders of History

Seven months ago I posted the first incarnation of this list (well, my first public incarnation) on this subreddit. I mentioned then that I had thoughts of working this list into book form. Well, those thoughts have become a partial manuscript, extensive research, and long nights telling my wife I just want to finish this one biography or one chapter…plus I work a rather more than 40 hour job, so this is all done in the cracks and gaps in my real life.

This list is my best stab at the Top 300 Commanders in history (originally 100) Plus 200 Other Cool Dudes. I've always been fascinated by leadership and personality in military history, and how much it can swing historical events one way or another. After much refining, research, interesting little threads and eddies that took me into some very obscure history, I think I've come up with a list.

The following are my ten criteria:

Personal Leadership (Personal example, in the thick of the fighting, respect and love of the soldiers) - Julius Caesar, in multiple instances, fits this example.

Tactical Ability (The ability to plan, act, react, and gain success on the battlefield - where metal meets metal) - Hannibal is an excellent example, since the Romans developed an entire strategy revolving around winning the war by not fighting him in battle.

Operational Art (The art of campaign, gaining success in maneuver, and making the battles count on the broader scale) - Napoleon was a master of this. One only has to look at Italy, or Ulm, or Jena-Auerstadt, or Bavaria in 1809.

Strategic Planning (The art of winning a war on a broad front - for ancient generals this translates to conquest, for more modern soldiers it translates to Grand Strategy) - Genghis Khan/Temujin is a great example from the pre-modern era. For the modern era, someone like Eisenhower, Zhukov or Von Moltke might be a better example.

Logistics & Organization (Keeping the troops fed and supplied against all odds, the importance of guns and butter) - this one tends to be trickier, and far less flashier than the examples above, but no less vital. Some of the truly great commanders, like Caesar, succeeded in spite of the shoestring logistics they operated on, but since this is partly their fault it's not a point in their favor. Good examples for this criteria are the Duke of Wellington and Helmuth von Moltke.

Innovation/Creativity in Tactics/Strategy (new ways of battle, new methods and counter-methods) - for those commanders that mastered the unexpected, or harnessed new tricks on the battlefield. Good examples would include, on land, Jan Zizka, or on the water Horatio Nelson. This doesn't necessarily mean they invented the tactic, but that certainly helps - it may just mean they put it to best use for the first time.

Innovation/creativity in Organization/Theory (reorganizing the army, new ideas in war, the intellectual side) - compared to #6, this is for the great reorganizers, reformers, disciplinarians, and theorists. This alone is not enough to make someone great (probably why Sun Tzu is so low on this list), but coupled with success in the field it's impressive as hell. A good example would be Gaius Marius or Heinz Guderian.

Difficulty of their Task (strength/skill of opponents, limitations on the home front/betrayal of allies, constraints on the commander's resources) - this shouldn't be understated. Many modern generals, like most Americans post-WWI, have had the full weight of resources, momentum, and planning on their side before the fight even started, only a little of which was their doing, while some have had to overcome enormous obstacles. Here's to the underdog, like Skanderbeg, or someone fighting with both hands tied behind his back, like Belisarius.

Success (winning!) - As great as all of the above is, it's irrelevant if it doesn't yield results. Did these folks win their battles, no matter how smart or clever they were? Did they win their war? If they weren't in control of the war effort, it won't count against them - but it's the main reason Napoleon is #3, and not #1, and the reason Cyrus the Great has edged over time into the top 20. The ultimate success of each commander's sum total is a major factor in determining their placement.

Influence - Did their reforms and their innovations shake the world? Did they build a great empire? Do other generals centuries later cite their battles or speak their names in reverence? If so, this is the criteria for them. The admiration of latter-day Chinese for Han Xin, or Napoleon for Turenne and Eugene, or modern-day logisticians for Wallenstein, doesn't mean anything concrete - but it means these folks warrant a second, or third look.

With my criteria in place, what follows is my list. I will fully admit it's subjective, based on my studies and examination of these generals. If you feel that someone deserves a little more – or a little less – credit, feel free to let me know! I am always open to suggestions. (Sorry guys, the top four is pretty darn locked into place, and Grant and Lee both belong in the top 100 they are not mutually exclusive.)

The Top 100 Commanders of All Time

Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I)

Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus)

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Publius Cornelius Scipio the Younger “Scipio Africanus”

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne

Helmuth von Moltke the Elder

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov

Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba “El Gran Capitan”

Maurice de Saxe, Count of Saxony

Louis II de Bourbon, Prince of Conde

Shivaji Bhonsle (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj)

Babur (Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad)

Stephen III of Moldavia “the Great” (Stefan cel Mare)

George Castriot “Skanderbeg”

Bayinnaung Kyawhtin Nawrahta

Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck

Roger of Lauria (Ruggiero de Lauria)

Li Shi-Min (Taizong of Tang)

Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma (Alexander Farnese)

Claude Louis Hector de Villars

Thomas Jonathan Jackson “Stonewall”

James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose

Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein

Francois Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg

Taizu of Jin (Wanyan Aguda)

Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim

William J. Slim, 1st Viscount Slim

Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby

Alvaro de Bazan, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz

Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu of Ming)

Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen

Sebastien Le Prestre de Vauban

Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases

Luis Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias

Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendome

Marcus Claudius Marcellus

George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney

George Catlett Marshall Jr.

Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazu)

Joseph Radetzky von Radetz

Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery

Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick

George Anson, 1st Baron Anson

Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher

Henry IV of France (Henry of Navarre)

Nzinga of Ndongo & Matamba

Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar “El Cid”

Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal

Anne Hilarion de Tourville

Antigonus I Monophthalmus

Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden

Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley

Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham

Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet “Bomber Harris”

The “Alpha List” is the next 100, unsorted. They are arranged by date of death. Most of these are my candidates for the ranked list, or people I have dropped off the ranked list for one reason or another.

• Thutmose I • Muwatalli II • David • Harpagus • Darius I • Wu Zixu • Cimon • Demosthenes • Lysimachus • Lian Po • Li Mu • Manius Curius Dentatus • Quintus Fabius Maximus “Cunctator” • Lucius Aemilius Paullus “Macedonicus” • Spartacus • Mithridates VI • Surena • Vercingetorix • Ma Yuan • Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo

• Marcus Aurelius • Zhang Liao • Daowu (Tuoba Gui) • Totila • Ashina She’er • Uqba ibn Nafi • Tariq ibn Zayid • Abu Muslim Khorasani • Mihira Bhoja I • Abaoji (Taizu of Liao) • Otto I • Anawrahta • Vladimir II Monomakh • Nur ad-Din Zengi (Nuraddin) • Taira no Kiyomori • Frederick I Barbarossa • Minamoto no Yoritomo • Muqali • Bayan of the Baarin • Stefan IV Uros Dusan

• Ashikaga Takauji • Xu Da • Bayezid I • Deva Raya I • Yongle of Ming (Zhu Di) • Bartolomeo Colleoni • Muhammad Shaybani • Huayna Capac • Askia Mohammad I of Songhai • Herluf Trolle • Setthathirath • Man Singh I • Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly • Bernard of Saxe-Weimar • Johan Baner • Abraham Duquesne • Aurangzeb • Philips van Almonde • Nicolas Catinat • Fyodor Apraksin

• James Wolfe • Count Leopold Joseph von Daun • Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke • Jassa Singh Ahluwalia • Jean-Jacques Dessalines • Pyotr Bagration • Little Turtle • Pyotr Rumyantsev • Tecumseh • Michel Ney • Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly • Antonio Jose de Sucre • Andrew Jackson • Thomas Cochrane • Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde • Moshoeshoe • David Glasgow Farragut • George Henry Thomas • Wilhelm von Tegetthoff • Cochise

• Crazy Horse • Mikhail Skobelev • Eduard Totleben • Piet Joubert • Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener • Oyama Iwao • Erich von Falkenhayn • Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig • Joseph Joffre • John Monash • Louis Franchet d’Esperey • Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin • August von Mackensen • John J. Pershing • Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke • Li Zongren • Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding • Peng Dehuai • Omar Bradley • Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.

The “Beta List” is the final 100 out of 500, also unranked. There’s room for movement between the A, B, and bottom 100 of the ranked list.

• Naram-Sin of Akkad • Mursili I • Joshua • Tiglath-Pileser I • Sargon II • Nebuchadnezzar II • Miltiades • Dionysius I of Syracuse • Agesilaus II • Iphicrates • Craterus • Xanthippus of Carthage • Gaius Duilius • Meng Tian • Antiochus III • Zhang Liang • Titus Quinctius Flamininus • Zhao Tuo • Quintus Caecilius Metellus “Macedonicus” • Tigranes the Great

• Germanicus Julius Caesar • Boudicca • Vespasian • Gnaeus Julius Agricola • Ardashir I • Odaenathus • Ran Min • Alaric I • Clovis I • Maurice (Byzantine Emperor) • Halfdan Ragnarsson • John Kourkouas • Sviatoslav I of Kiev • Roger I of Sicily • Bohemond I of Antioch • Imad ad-Din Zengi • Alfonso VIII of Castile • Guo Kan • William Wallace • Dmitry Donskoy

• Kusunoki Masanori • Gazi Evrenos • Braccio da Montone • Arthur III, Duke of Brittany • Vlad III of Wallachia “Dracul” • Federico da Montefeltro • Georg von Frundsberg • Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto • Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba • William I, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) • Antonio de Oquendo • Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria • Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) • Stefan Czarniecki • Prince Rupert of the Rhine • Cornelis Tromp • Jean Bart • Menno van Coehoorn • Peter Tordenskjold • Jai Singh II

• Edward Boscawen • Francois Joseph Paul de Grasse • Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel • Anthony Wayne • Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov • Sir John Moore • Isaac Brock • Friedrich William Freiherr von Bulow • Tadeusz Kosciuszko • Manuel Belgrano • Tomas de Zumalacarregui • Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill • Charles James Napier • Sam Houston • Hong Xiuquan • Albrecht von Roon • Charles George Gordon • Osman Nuri Pasha

• Svetozar Boroevic • Michael Collins • Mikhail Frunze • Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia • Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer • Leon Trotsky • Orde Wingate • Jan Smuts • Philippe Petain • Richmond Kelly Turner • Raizo Tanaka • Andrey Yeryomenko • Chesty Puller • Francisco Franco • Haim Bar-Lev • Abdul Harris Nasution • Sam Manekshaw • David Petraeus

That’s what I have. I encourage you to Google or Wiki someone you’re not familiar with – or just ask, I’d love to talk about it.

I would live to hear from anyone who has something to contribute, hate on, praise, whine about, critique. I'm always looking to refine, edit, and tinker with this list, and I fully admit that, like anyone, there are serious gaps in my knowledge, so I'll always be ready to listen (though if you try to argue that so-and-so homeboy of yours should be ahead of Alexander, Hannibal, and Temujin, I may have to give a gentle but firm "negative" on that. Please let me know what you think!

A 17th Century Organ Gun from Lviv

Since gunpowder was first developed, humans have strived to refine and better harness this technology to develop more effective and deadly weapons for the battlefield. While some of the earliest artillery pieces were heavy bombards—fixed on a wooden base placed directly on the ground and only useful for engaging large, immobile targets such castle walls—gunsmiths have always worked to create artillery weapons which could be used in a mobile role and be more effective in large, open field battles.

Because of their heavy ammunition and cumbersome loading procedures, large-calibre guns (typified by so-called ‘siege guns’) had a rate of fire of only a few shots per hour—and were nearly immobile in the field. Early designers moved to create guns which were lighter and would therefore yield a higher rate of fire. Besides casting typical single-shot artillery pieces of smaller bore, gunsmiths also experimented with a new class of weapons: volley guns. These were smaller and had several barrels pieces with two, three, or even dozens of barrels were developed. With several relatively thin barrels stacked next to one another, volley guns looked somewhat like pipe organs, and thus acquired the nickname ‘organ guns’ or orgues des bombardes.

The fundamental idea behind organ guns—lighter ammunition and a higher rate of fire allowing more firepower to be brought to bear against mobile targets, especially massed infantry—was so obvious that different cultures and gunsmiths developed and build hundreds of different types of ‘volley guns’. Many authors consider the organ gun to be the predecessor to later multi-barrel mitrailleuse type weapons and the great-grandfather of ‘true’ machine guns (repeating firearms capable of automatic fire). Many later designs arranged the barrels in several ‘batteries’, allowing multiple salvos of shots to be fired as required. An early example of such design, dating to 1387, featured an astonishing 144 barrels—allowing for 12 salvos of 12 projectiles each to be fired.

Early mentions of single-volley configurations date to 1339, using the term ribauld or ribauldequin. The first recorded use of artillery volley guns in battle is believed to have occurred in 1382, when the Belgian cities known today as Ghent and Bruges were at war. The early volley guns that were based on the ribauldequin concept, in which several barrels are fired in succession. The army at Ghent had some 200 of these chars de cannon in the field. Venetian general Colleoni employed a number of organ guns as mobile auxiliary units during his campaigns, famously using these to support his armoured cavalry at the Battle of Piccardini (1457) similar guns were later illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci (see Figure 1.1). Louis XII of France (1498–1515) is said to have employed a gun with 50 barrels, which fired in a single volley. Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto and famed Navarrese military engineer, used the weapon against the French at the Battle of Ravenna (11 April 1512).

Figure 1.1 A ribauldequin (or organ gun) as illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci in a series of 15 th century studies (source: public domain). A reconstruction in the style of this design can be found in the Château de Castelnaud in Dordogne, France.

Whilst the general design appears to have originated in modern-day Belgium and France, the ribaldequin was also used in Germany, including during the Hussite Wars (1419–1434). An illustration showing a 6-barrelled example which appears to be configured for indirect fire is illustrated in Hans Talhoffer’s Alte Armatur und Ringkunst of 1459, in a folio reproducing Konrad Kyeser’s Bellifortis (‘War Fortifications’) (1402–1405 see Figure 1.2). In England, the earliest known Exchequer reference dates to 1430, noting the receipt of fourteen such guns from France. Organ guns were regularly used in campaigns thereafter, and saw service during the Wars of the Roses—notably by Yorkists under the leadership of Richard Neville, 16 th Earl of Warwick, who employed the weapon against the Lancastrians during the Second Battle of St. Albans (17 February 1461).

Figure 1.2 A multi-barrelled gun illustrated in Konrad Kyeser’s Bellifortis, as reproduced in the 1459 Talhoffer Fechtbuch (source: MS Thott.290.2º, Kongelige Bibliotek).

The use of multi-barrelled artillery guns also spread to Eastern Europe, and local designs and developments were introduced. In Russia, such guns were known as a сорока (soroka or ‘magpie’) or органы (organy ‘organ’) and were adopted from the second half of the 16 th century onwards. Both volley-fire types, such as 105-barrel example displayed at the St. Petersburg Artillery Museum, and salvo-fire examples were employed. The Russian Военная энциклопедия (‘Military Encyclopaedia’)—edited by Colonel V.F. Novitsky and published by I.D. Sytin in 1914—notes that the weapons were mostly used to defend fixed positions. Illustrations in in Novitsky’s work include a number of 17 th century designs with salvo-fire barrel configurations (see Figure 1.2).

The ‘Cossack Gun’ of Lviv

A 17 th century example of an organ gun is held in the collection of the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in Kyiv. This was transferred via a now-defunct Lviv museum collection (see below) and was originally listed as an ‘organкі’ in Polish. The term organok was coined for the weapon when this was translated into Ukrainian, however the authors will prefer the English ‘organ gun’. Nine smoothbore barrels of between 340 and 430 mm in length are arranged horizontally, embedded to some three-quarters of their length into an oakwood stock. The stock is approximately 96 cm long, 40 cm wide, and 8 cm thick. The bore diameter is approximately 25 mm, although there is some variation between barrels. There is a rectangular-shaped hole in the wooden stock, which Professor Gorbik suggests may once have been used to fit the gun to a hook, allowing it to be suspended in a window or entranceway. This, along with some crude construction methods, indicates the gun was most likely used as a last-ditch defence weapon—to repel troops rushing through gaps in breached walls or into an inner defensive perimeter.

Figure 1.3 The organok organ gun held in the collection of the National Museum of the History of Ukraine (source: National Museum of the History of Ukraine Inv.№ З-1496. Photo by M. Verkhoturova).

The barrels are fastened to the stock with two sheet-iron bands which are affixed with nineteen forged iron nails. The first of these brackets fastens the barrels to the breech, including a duplicate touch-hole above the vent. The second bracket holds the barrels in place towards the muzzle end (see Figure 1.4). Each barrel is backed by a metal breech-plug (some with small cascabels), which are additionally affixed to the wooden stock thin retaining bands. The gun does not bear any markings and has no accompanying period documentation.

Figure 1.4 The organok in the collection of the National Museum of the History of Ukraine. Note the barrel bands (source: National Museum of the History of Ukraine Inv.№ З-1496. Photo by M. Verkhoturova).

In issue 11 of the Journal of the Ordnance Society (1999), Robert Morgan relates a theory that this organok was recovered from the battlefield of Berestechko (30 June 1651) during the Cossack-Polish War (1648–1657). A review of the archives at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine indicates that there are no documents related to this weapon held by the Museum. Instead, this weapon is to be found in the old catalogues of the Muzeum Narodowe im. krola Jana III, which merged with the modern Lviv Historical Museum in 1939. Around that time, the organ gun from Lviv was transferred first to Poland and then to Kyiv. While the piece was in Lviv, there appears to be no documentary evidence to suggest that it was recovered from the battlefield near Berestechko. The catalogues of the museums in Lviv at that time are considered to be quite accurate if this weapon had been recovered from the field of the Battle of Berestechko, one would expect it to be clearly recorded in the available documentary evidence.

There is one wrinkle, however. The museum reform of the 1940s, which took place in Lviv, led to the disbandment of 26 museum institutions and the redistribution of their collections. As a result, their funds were distributed among several major museums in the city. Unfortunately, the integrity of many Ukrainian museum collections suffered under Soviet ‘reform’. Frequent and seemingly arbitrary orders were issued demanding the transfer of funding and materiel from one museum to another. As a result, the National Museum of the History of Ukraine received a number of samples of weapons from museums in Lviv. The partial loss of documents accompanying these exchanges has made it impossible to identify the provenance of many items. It is possible that the information about this particular gun’s arrival in the museum collection was lost during the time of its transfer. Today, the so-called ‘Cossack gun’ resides in a National Museum gallery dedicated to the history of Ukraine in the 17 th century.

Figure 1.5 The organok in the collection of the National Museum of the History of Ukraine. Note the apparent variation in bore diameter (source: National Museum of the History of Ukraine Inv.№ З-1496. Photo by M. Verkhoturova).

There are, however, documents from the City Arsenal of Lviv which date from the 17 th century and record different quantities of organ guns within the cities arsenal during the period in question. In the opinion of the authors, the National Museum gun most likely originated in Lviv. This theory is supported by documentary sources from other regions of Ukraine, which record organ guns in arsenals around the country through the 15 th and 16 th centuries. A selection of these are as follows:

  • An inventory of Ukrainian castles undertaken in the 1550s indicates that there were “13 barrels” in Zhytomyr (this could refer to an organ gun, although it is possible this refers to a total number of barrels across multiple guns) (Boychuk, 1965)
  • In 1570, there were two organ guns in Kamianka (one of 21 barrels, and the other of 24) (Malchenko, 2004)
  • In 1607, the Bar Arsenal held a 5-barrelled organ gun (Malchenko, 2004)
  • At the beginning of the 17 th century, Kamianka recorded a 24-barrel organ gun (it is not known if this is the same gun as previously recorded) (Malchenko, 2004)
  • According to Book of Protocols of Pharmacists of the City Arsenal on the Audit of Weapons Warehouses and Workshop Towers in 1669, the Lviv City Arsenal had one six-barrel and three five-barrel organ guns and
  • In 1686, the Lviv City Arsenal recorded five organ guns (Lviv, 17 th C.).

The use of multi-barrel artillery on the territory of modern Ukrainian lands during the 16 th –17 th centuries was reasonably widespread. Of course, the lack of markings and accompanying documents—and an absence of other extant examples with similar design features from the place and period—means that the origin of the National Museum gun, whether Cossack or originating from the arsenal of Lviv, cannot at this stage be definitively stated. However, taking into account the methods by which the museum collections of Lviv were formed in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, the most likely assessment is that the gun originates from Lviv.

The authors highly recommend all readers with an interest in the history of artillery consider visiting the National Museum of the History of Ukraine, in Kyiv.


Boychuk, M.K. 1965. Актова книга Житомирського міського уряду кінця XVI столітт, 1582–1588 [Act Book of the Zhytomyr City Government at the End of the XVI Century, 1582–1588]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. p. 191.

Chinn, George M. 1951. The Machine Gun: History, Evolution, and Development of Manual, Automatic, and

Airborne Repeating Weapons. Volume I. Washington, DC: Bureau of Ordnance, Department of the Navy. pp. 12–15.

Ellis, John. 1975. The Social History of the Machine Gun. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 10–11.

Lviv City Arsenal. 17 th Century. Книга протоколів провізорів міського арсеналу про проведення ревізії складів зброї та цехових веж [Book of Protocols of Pharmacists of the City Arsenal on the Audit of Weapons Depots and Workshop Towers]. Available via: CDIAL of Ukraine, f. 52, op. 1, file 659.

Malchenko, Oleg. 2004. Арсенали українських замків XV–XVII століття [Arsenals of Ukrainian Castles of the XV–XVII Centuries]. Kyiv: M.S. Hrushevsky Ukrainian Institute of Archeology and Source Studies. pp. 305–312.

Morgan, Robert. 1999. ‘A Cossack Gun’. Journal of the Ordnance Society, No. 11, pp. 18–20.

Novitsky, V.F. (ed.). 1914. ‘ОРГАНЫ’ (‘Organ’) in Военная энциклопедия [Military Encyclopaedia]. Volume 17. Moscow: I.D. Sytin. pp. 141–142.

Prenderghast, Gerald. 2018. Repeating and Multi-Fire Weapons: A History from the Zhuge Crossbow through the AK-47. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. pp. 18–19.

Rathgen, Bernhard. 1928. Das Geschuetz Im Mittelalter [The Gun in the Middle Ages]. Berlin: VDI-Verlag. pp. 88 259 334–335 708.

Spencer, Dan. 2016. The Development of Gunpowder Weapons in Late Medieval England. PhD thesis: University of Southampton. Available at: <

Talhoffer, Hans. 1459. Alte Armatur und Ringkunst. MS Thott 290 2º. Bavaria.

Weir, Alison. 1995. The War of the Roses. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ch. 15.

Willbanks, James H. 2018. Machine Guns: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 21­–25.

Francisco de Osuna

Michel-Ange retrasa su nacimiento hasta There he mastered the three schools of theology being taught in his day, viz. Francis himself entered military service while in his teens, in the course of which he saw action at the conquest of Tripoli 25 August by Spain under Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto. Part of a series on. Ingresa entre dos hitos fundamentales: Tercer abecedario espiritual de Francisco de Osuna.

SPCK,p6. Predicador aplaudido por muchos, sabio, natural, lleno de fuego y prudente reserva. No lo puedo precisar. La provincia franciscana de Castilla contaba en con ocho conventos de recogimiento: En la mocedad de Osuna no se aprecian detalles de ligereza moral.

Dios no niega su gracia al que hace lo que le corresponde: Las frases son directas no comprende los discursos rebuscados. En la Salceda parece que compuso sus obras de espiritualidad en castellano. La ley debiera evitarlo y favorecer una igualdad de oportunidades para los menos potentes.

The Mystics of Spain. Aspects of meditation Orationis Formas Osuna, Francisco de, en Gran Enciclopedia Rialp. El 31 de marzo de Juan de Espinosa dice en su dedicatoria al obispo Antonio de Guevara: Francisco de, en Q. La Provincia de Castilla designa en ocho de estos lugares: Osuna, como tantos hermanos suyos de la Observancia, hizo espigitual posible por que su vida fuese ignorada.

An Anthology of Christian mysticism 2nd ed. Lo acostumbrado en los Frailes Menores de entonces era prescindir del apellido de familia, para favorecer el sentido de igualdad, aunque algunos lo conservaron. Hasta la lengua se generaliza y en castellano se redactan las actas oficiales. Esto no quiere decir que Osuna sea nominalista. He completed his studies inwhereupon he received the habit of the Observant branch of the Order of Friars Minorwith the Province of Castile.

Su celo de joven le arranca de la silla para hacerle misionero infatigable y apasionado. Al poco tiempo el franciscano se despide de su encantadora tierra aofabeto toma caminos del norte. Quiero ir a recibir aquella limosna.

Se edifica de todos, observa, compara.

Abecedario espiritual – Francisco de Osuna – Google Books

espifitual He composed three such alphabets. Enlaza con facilidad con los franciscanos de Aquitania y encuentra editor para su primera obra latina. Por eso hubo ministros generales de la Orden partidarios y enemigos de las mismas. Francisco, cuando llega a la Salceda 20 Km al sureste psuna Guadalajaraprocura estar atento y emular a los mejores: Los superiores pronto se dieron cuenta de sus aficiones y conocimientos en el campo espiritual. Views Read Edit View history.

Michel-Ange y del P. A partir de y hastaOsuna permanece en el extranjero. No valen disculpas solapadas:

Francisco de Osuna

Vicente Ferrer, Ubertino de Casale, el Cartujano, etc. His premise in the book is that friendship and communion with God are possible in this life through cleansing one’s conscience, entering one’s espirtual, resting in loving stillness, and then rising above the heart to God alone.

Busca incansablemente la verdad, valora la experiencia y el saber, no descuida el bien decir. Enciclopedia franciscana in Spanish.

En espirihual nombrado Comisario General de Indias en Sevilla, donde publica algunas de sus obras. Empero, viendo los hielos del invierno hube de rogar a un rico que me diese pluma en que durmiese Los superiores pronto se dieron cuenta de sus aficiones y conocimientos en el campo espiritual.

Un maestro de Santa Teresa: Osuna, Francisco de, en Gran Enciclopedia Rialp. Se mantienen muy fieles a la pureza de la fe defendida durante siglos, pero no tanto a la pureza de conducta. Con ello comienza a enriquecer y elaborar un tipo de lenguaje, preparando el camino a nuestras cumbres de la espiritualidad. Por ello renuncia a otras ocupaciones o cargos.

Espriitual un orador popular, ardiente y apasionado. Osuna vive, recoge y formula su experiencia espiritual, la de los espirituao y directores de conciencia de los recolectorios. Nuestro inquieto franciscano baja a Sevilla.


Tripoli lies at the western extremity of Libya close to the Tunisian border, on the continent of Africa. Over a thousand kilometeres separate Tripoli from Libya's second largest city, Benghazi. Along the shores of Tripolitania for more than 300 kilometers, coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons.

The dominant climatic influences in Tripoli, a coastal lowland city, are Mediterranean. The city enjoys warm summers and mild winters with an average July temperature of between 22° and 29° C. In December temperatures have reached as low as 1° C, but the average remains at between 9° and 18° C. The average annual rainfall is less than 400mm, but can be very erratic.

For example, epic floods in 1945 left Tripoli under water for several days, but two years later an unprecedentedly severe drought caused the loss of thousands of head of cattle. Deficiency in rainfall is no doubt reflected in an absence of permanent rivers or streams in Tripoli as well as an absence throughout the entire country. The allocation of limited water is considered of sufficient importance to warrant the existence of the Secretariat of Dams and Water Resources, and damaging a source of water can be penalized by a heavy fine or imprisonment.

The Great Manmade River, a network of pipelines that transport water from the desert to the coastal cities, supplies Tripoli with its water. The grand scheme was initiated by Gaddafi in 1982 and has had a positive impact on the city's inhabitants.

Tripoli is dotted with public spaces, but few fit under the category of large city parks. The Green Square located near the waterfront is scattered with palm trees, the most abundant plant used for landscaping in the city. Tripoli zoo, located south of the city centre, is a large reserve of plants, trees and open green spaces and is the country's biggest zoo.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F (°C) 63
Avg low temperature °F (°C) 44
Rainfall in. (mm) 2.7
Source: Weatherbase

Navarro Family Crest, Coat of Arms and Name History

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Meaning, Origin, Etymology
The Navarro surname is a locational surname. It is Spanish but may also be French or Italian, in Britian it is Nabarro. It describes a former resident of the ancient kingdom of Navarre, now divided between France and Spain. The name means the treeless country or perhaps the country above the trees. This name was also a nickname that was given to gentlemen and knights that were from Navarre and participated in the Spanish reconquest. Navarre was originally part of the Kingdom of Pamplona, which is one of the ancient kingdoms in Spain. In Spain it is derived from the Basque word ‘nava’ or ‘naba’ which means ‘plain near the mountains.’ In Italy Navarro was first found in Bolgna (Latin: Bononia) which is the largest city and capital of the Emilia-Romagna Region. Navarre today is a semi-autonmous region in northern Spain. It was once a Basque kingdom known as The Kingdom of Navarre, which reached its zenith under the reign of King Sancho III who reigned from in the eleventh century AD. It is believed the city’s name derived from the Basque world nabar (brownish or multicolour), or from naba (valley of plain) and herri (people or land). Others say it means “treeless county” or “the country above the trees”. The name was also present in the Christian Kingdom of Aragon during medieval times. The first documented bearer was Francisco Navarro who was christened in 1510 AD at Madrid Cathedral.

Juan Navarro was born in Navarra, Spain (Espana) in 1482 AD. In 1523, he married Maria Rodriguez, and had a son with her named Juan. This son, Juan Navarro Sanchez was born in San Martin, Pais Vasco, Spain. He married Maria Rodriguez de Sosa and had the following children with her prior to his death in Saltillo, Mexico: Francisca, Beatriz, Mariana Navarro Rodriguez, Martin Navarro Rodriguez, Melchora Navarro, Ursula Innes Catarina Navarro Rodriguez, Maria Ines Navarro Rodriguez, and Ana Maria Navarro Rodriguez.

Angel Navarro was born in Ajaccio, Corsica, France in around 1749. He went to Mexico and married Maria Josefa Gertrudis Ruiz, and had the following children with her prior to his 1808 in San Antonio, Texas: Jose Francisco, Jose Angel, Maria Gertrudis, Maria Simona, Maria Josefa, Maria Josefa Candida, Jose Francisco Salas, Jose Antonio Baldomero, Maria Antonia, Jose Luciano, Jose Anselmo, and Jose Eugenio Nepomuceno.

Spelling Variations
Navarro, Navaro, Navarra, Navarre, Navarrolas, Navarijo, Najara, Najera, and de Najera, Mavica, Maurizi, Maurizzi, Maurizio, Maurici, Maurovi, Murigia, Navarrini, and Navarro

Popularity & Geographic Distribution
The last name Navarro ranks 446th in popularity worldwide as of the 2014 Census and approximately 1,165,503 people carry the Navarro surname worldwide. The name ranks particularly high in the following six states: California, Texas, Florida, New York, Arizona, and Illinois. It ranks highest in the following countries: Mexico (240,025), Spain (189,508), Philippines (113,986), United States (89,040), Argentina (85,006), Colombia (83,310)

Early Bearers of Surname
Juan de Najera, at Villapalacio, San Sebastian, Spain, on January 27th 1573
Lesaca Najurieta, at Murillo, Navarra, Spain, on February 26th 1690
Maria Josepha Navarijo at San Gabriel Arcangel, Mexico, on May 12th 1774
Jose Marcos Navarra, a witness at San Sebastian on September 19th 1796
Peres Narariso was christened at Santa Cruz Solebad, Mexico, on October 11th 1797
Soto Navarro was christened at Santa Clara, on October 23rd 1791
Francisco Navarro, which was dated January 1st 1510, christened at Madrid Cathedral, Madrid, Spain

Early Marriages for Navarro
Juan Cavallero Y Navarro married Beatris De La Cueva Y Villasenor on Oct. 14, 1699 in San Agustin, Ayo El Chico, Jalisco, Mexico
Petronila De Cabrera Y Navarro married Luis Masias De Valdes on Nov. 25, 1675 in Ocotian, Jalisco, Mexico
Antonio De La Trinidad De Astudillo Navarro married Maria De La Consepcion Gonsales on Nov. 1, 1722 in Santa Veracruz-Mexico Ciudad, Distrito Federal, Mexico
Luis Balladares Navarro married Barbara Gertrudis Cabezas on Jul. 7, 1753 in Asuncion, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico
Pedro Nolasco Chavez Navarro married Thereza De Pina on Jul. 3, 1773 in Compostela, Nayarit, Mexico
Joan Adoa Navarro married Maria De Vega in 1696 in Diocesis De Granada, Granada, Spain
Francisco Alonsso Navarro married Jacinta Maria De Morales on Oct. 9, 1653 in Diocesis De Granada, Granada, Spain
Fernando Alonsso Navarro married Maria Moyano on Nov. 15, 1752 in Nuestra Senora De La Asuncion, La Seca, Valladolid, Spain
Manuel Armendariz Y Navarro married Gregoria Muro Y Navarro on Jul. 8, 1793 in Santa Maria, Falces, Navarra, Spain
Maria Juana Argumanes married Francisco Ramos on Oct. 22, 1736 in San Sebastian, Munera, Albacete, Spain

History, Genealogy & Ancestry
NAVARRO (This history was taken from an Italian Text and Translated to English)
Family originally from Gozzo, near Malta. Some believe it is of Spanish origin and others, finally, say it is Arabic, in whose language Navarro means solicitude. In the XIIth century we are going to say in Naopoli. He enjoyed nobility in Luccra – Monument: Naples in the church of Santa Maria La Nuova. Feudi: Atina Miraglia. Marchesato: Cameli – Parentele :: Ambrosio (d ‘), Beccadelli, Blasio (de), Castellet, Corvera, Cusabo, Pavie (di), Tamburri. – Authors: Accattatis, Amely, Falconi, Fiore, Galluppi, Lancia, Lumaga, Morgigni, Mugnos, Palizzolo, Tosti, Villabianca. – Giovanni accompanies King Martin I to Sicily, of which he was a Councilor and family member, and established his family in Licata. Andrea Governor of the Island of Gozzo for King Alfonso I of Aragon and Algozino, or Magistrate assigned to instruct the trials and assist the Grand Justicar. He had from the King the fief of Miraglia and 150 ducats per year on the feudal property falling back to the Crown, and the concession to use the same weapon as the Kingdom of Navarre, that is blue with gold chains with concentric squares. In 1470 he was sent to Tunis by King John of Aragon to deal with that Regency. Set up a perpetual benefit to help the destitute damsels of Palermo, and fund a monastery called Cotrone with the title of Jesus and Mary. Pietro General and brave leader of King Ferdinand the Catholic defeated the French at S. Germano and sent them away from Melfi, from Venosa and from other Basilicata countries. He went to the Barberia expedition where he conquered Oran and Tripoli, and fought against the Moors valiantly in Castigilia. In 1512 he was taken prisoner by the French at the battle of Ravenna and having turned to Ferdinando the Catholic to be redeemed, he had a formal refusal, because he returned his patents, took service in the army of Francis I of France, for whom he fights in Navarre, in Vigevano and in Pavia. He was a Gentleman of the Chamber and obtained the title of count for himself and his heirs and successors. In 1528 he died and was buried in Naples in the Church of S. Mara la Nuova, where Consalvo di Cordova had him erect a sepulcher. He was the inventor of mines. Pietro Paolo Gesuita, a very learned and zealous missionary, was martyred in Japan in 1622. Melchiorre (Count) Chancellor of Chancellery. Giuseppe (Count) Infantry Captain. Bernardo Judge of the G.C. of the Vicar, Caporuota of the S.R.C. and Director of the R. Camera di S. Chiara. Francesco Cavaliere Costantiniano and of the Order of Francesco I, President of the supreme Court of Justice, diligent and distinguished magistrate. In 1849 he was appointed Minister for ecclesiastical affairs, and for the Istruzion publica, a position he refused. Spouse Raffaella Tamburri, heir to the Marquisate of Cameli. In 1848 he was named Pari del Regno, and with him the following: Prince of S. Antimo Ruffo, Duke Riccardo di Sangro, Duke of Campomele Francesco Evoli, Luigi de Biase, Duke Mario Mastrilli di Gallo, Marshal Sozii Carafa, Barone Luigi Rodino, Marchese Giuseppe Letizia, Raffaele Longobardi, Count of Montesantangelo Nicola Serra, Marshal Francesco Saverio Garofalo, Baron Francesco Ciccarelli, Marquis Andrea Santasilia, Marchese Giuseppe Donnaperna, Duke of Terranova, Justin Fortunato, Francesco Saverio d’Andrea General Attorney of the Court of Auditors , Carlo Cianciulli and Nicola de Luca Attorney General of the Supreme Court of Justice. – Bernard Knight of the Constantinian Order, and of Francesco I, Subintendent of Pozzuoli.
Arms: 1st Involved: in the 1 of red to the gold arrow, in the 3rd of red to the eagle spelled out of black, in 2 and 4 of silver with the chain of gold placed in bar crossing across the whole. – 2 Of red with gold chains in concentric squares. – 3 D’azure with four bands of gold, the two in the middle juxtaposed by three silver stars. Motto: Vera domitus chain. – It is represented in Naples by the Marquis of Cameli Francesco Navarro.

Juan Navarro married 1st Juliana del Rio, and they had a son Juan Andres, born 1773 and a daughter Maria Josefa born 1775 he married 2nd 1778, Josefa Flores (Pedro and Isabel Delgado), and they had a daughter Maria Antonia married 1803 Jose Leal. Juan Antonio Navarro sold Bartolo Seguin a lot on Real St., August 31, 1780 it measured 10 by 40 v., and entered the Plaza de Armas (Military Plaza) it was improved with a chamaquero of frame, or good lumber (buena madera) it was bounded E, street N, land of Cabo Pedro Peres W, Josefa Flores S, Angel Navarro. I. Angel Navarro was a native of Ajaccio, Corsica, “a countryman of Napoleon Bonaparte, the latter going toward the rising sun to become the greatest man mentioned in secular history, and the former toward the setting sun to a small border town in the wilds of Texas,” says Rodriguez (Memoirs), “where unknown to fortune and renown, he quietly passed away in peace and contentment.” He left his native island, Corsica in 1772, when about 13 or 14 years of age visited in Genoa, Barcelona and Cadiz and after service in the Spanish army, emigrated to Mexico. He was a resident of Real de Bayecillos for eight years, and came to San Antonio in the capacity of a merchant, in about 1777. The Bexar Archives May 14, 1792 says “after six years he married,” and in 1792 he had been married nine years. He was alcalde in 1790. On June 27, 1808, he purchased a lot 10 v. square from Manuela de la Pena. He was the first one buried in the Campo Santo, which replaced the original cemetery immediately surrounding the parish church, on the plaza, and which was removed to the site of present Milam Square, his burial taking place with religious ceremony, November 1, 1808. The Navarro home was at the northeast corner of Presidio and Flores Streets (Commerce and N. Flores) it had adobe walls 3 1/2 ft. thick. To the N, was the famous Zambrano Row the immediate property to the N, being the Bartolo Seguin chamacuero, referred to above, 1780. Angel Navarro married Maria Josefa Ruiz y Pena, daughter of Manuel Ruiz de Pesia and Manuela de la Pena, of Spanish and creole origin, native of San Antonio, according to the Navarro Apuntes Historicos. They had 1. Jose Francisco Eduardo, born 1783. 2. Jose de los Angeles born 1784. 3. Maria Gertrudis. 4. Maria Simona 5. Maria Francisca Candida. 6. Maria Josefa Candida. 7. Jose Francisco Salas born 1794. 8. Jose Antonio Baldomero, born February 27, 1795, San Antonio. 9. Maria Antonio born 1797. 10. Jose Luciano born 1800. 11. Jose Anselmo born 1802. 12. Jose Eugenio, born 1803 died intestate, 1838. According to local tradition Angel Navarro left three daughters Juana adopted by Juan Veramendi, married Alejo Peres Gertrudis, adopted by Luciano Navarro married Miguel Cantu and Josefa called “Chipita,” adopted by Luz Escalera. II. Jose Angeles (2), a Lieut. under Arrendon married 1st Concepcion Cervantes (Jose and Barbara Peres or Pozos) and married 2nd 1831, Maria Juana Ramires (Jose and Maria or Juana Josefa de la Garza). By the 1st marriage 1. Maria Petra born 1814. By the 2nd marriage 1. Jose de los Angeles Narciso born 1832. 2. Federico. Jose Angel proclaimed the plan of Iturbide in San Antonio, when Governor Martinez surrendered to him, delivering all the government archives, and afterwards adhering to Iturbide’s plan of independence. From this period dates the restoration and return of the Navarros, who, like Col. Francisco Ruiz their mother’s brother, had been in refuge in the United States. In 1825, April 22, he purchased a dilapidated house and lot from Maria Josefa de Zaga and Francisco Perez. He was the Political Chief in Bexar, 1835. III. Jose Antonio (8) born February 27, 1795. Early in his boyhood he lost his father and went to work in a mercantile establishment in Louisiana. He was fond of reading books, and as scarce as they were, he practically educated himself, says Feliciano Flores (Sketch, Ms.) though Dixon says he was educated in the best college in Spain and received a literary degree. He was a friend of Stephen F. Austin, adds Flores, and accompanied him to Mexico to obtain his colonization contract. As a member of the Coahuila-Texas State Congress, he fought for Constitutional Government, and was frequently referred to as the Americanized-Texan. In 1831 he was appointed Commissioner of De Witt’s colony. In 1833 he was elected supplementary representative to the General Congress of Mexico. From 1834-1835 he was Land Commissioner for the District of Bexar. In 1835 he was elected senator, but this position he declined and resigned, as he had already made up his mind to join the Texas struggle for Independence. The same year he was elected by Bexar, to the Convention at Washington-on-Brazos. In that body, with Ruiz and De Zavala, the three Spanish-Americans gave it some appearance of being more than a mere assembly of disgruntled Anglo-Americans, says Barker. Navarro was signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Menefee tells us that his modest bearing attracted the attention of the delegation, and that “He at first appeared ill at ease, but as he came in contact with the delegates who greeted him cordially, he threw off his reserve and mingled freely with them and impressed them all that was sincerely devoted our cause. When he and Mr. Zavala were appointed on the Committee to draft the Constitution, he seemed greatly pleased… During the preparation of the Constitution he made frequent suggestions regarding its phraseology, demonstrating his familiarity with Republican institutions.” Navarro was appointed one of the Commissioners to accompany the Santa Fe expedition. He was captured and imprisoned in the Acordadad (for the first two years) and then in the dungeon of the San Juan Ulloa. Santa Ana condemned him to life imprisonment, and close confinement though he offered him his liberty and high office if he would turn against Texas. When Herrera succeeded Santa Ana, Navarro secured his release and immediately left for Texas, landing at Galveston February 15, 1845. “He at once proceeded to San Antonio and was elected a delegate to the Convention which framed the State Constitution. He served in the First State Senate. Colonel Edward Burleson, son of the General and Vice-President, was a close personal friend of Mr. Navarro’s in speaking of him, he said: “Mr. Navarro was no ordinary man. He was a strong supporter of our American institutions public spirited and progressive in thought. He often referred to his confinement in a Mexican prison and of the suffering endured by the Texan prisoners in their forced march from Santa Fe to Mexico City. He was a man of means and spent his money freely to relieve the suffering of the Texans on their march. Colonel Cooke told me that ‘had it not been for the generosity of Mr. Navarro many more of the Texan prisoners would have perished than did.'” “When Navarro County was created from Robertson County in 1846 it was named in honor of Jose Antonio Navarro, a Mexican patriot and signer of the Declaration Of Texas Independence. When Navarro County was organized and a permanent seat of government established in 1848, it was named Corsicana in honor of his father’s place of birth, Corsica.” “After more than twenty years of public service to his beloved country and having led a useful life, on January 13, 1871, at his home in San Antonio, in an old fashioned stone building which is still standing at the NE corner of Nueva and Laredo Streets, surrounded by his loving family, there passed away one of the greatest characters in Texas history, Colonel Jose Antonio Navarro, the Texas patriot, who was lad to rest in San Fernando Cemetery.” Jose Antonio Navarro, according to his will, dated San Antonio, February 15, 1817, had five children: 1. Jose Antonio George. 2. Celso Cornelio married Agapita Garcia lived in Atascosa County. 3. Angel 4. Sixto Eusebio, Captain in the Confederate Army lived in Atascosa County married Genoveva Cortinas of Nacogdoches. They had 12 children among whom i. Antonio “a noble young man, of courteous manners and pleasing address and a Spanish teacher in the Public Schools of San Antonio, Texas.” ii. Nereo married Feliz. iii. Teodora married Blas Herrera vi. Cisto v. Frank vi. Gertrudis vii. Josefa. 5. Josefa married Daniel Tobin. Family records include Carmen and Maria Gertrudis. IV. Jose Antonio George married Juana Chaves (her mother was Maria Leonarda Montes, 1. Jose Eugenio Tiburcio born 1840 died intestate, 1838, leaving a sister. married Antonia Chaves. i. Leonardo married Eliza Vela: a. Juana Cantu b. Leonardo c. Alfonso ii. Elvira married Eugenio Ogden iii. Anita married Dominic Tripodi by whom: Tony, John Chicano, Eliza Rossi, and Adelina. iv. Juana married Frank Marasco v. Lucia vi. Josefa vii. Jose Antonio Victor married Eliza Dorson. 2. Maria Antonia Romalda born 1844 married John C. Ross i. Tom ii. Tony iii. Max iv. Hanna married Eason Woods. v. Robert vi. Alex. 3. Margarita Isidra born 1846 married Robert Langston i. Stephen ii. Juana married Howard Sendles iii. Walter married Lottie Ross. iv. Lawrence married Leonore Ross. v. Arthur married Miss Ross. vi. George. IV. Celso married Agapita Garcia: 1. Maria Antonia married William Swisher: i. John ii. William married Victoria Garcia. iii. Fred, May Wagner both died. iv. Henry v. Sarah vi. Tony. vii. Mamie. 2. Juan Jose born April 26, 1856 died March 25, 1925 married November 16, 1876, Maria de Jesus Balderas: i. Agapita ii. Lucinda married Felimon Guerra. iii. Carolina married Arthur Ross. iv. Jose Antonio married Florence Forestier. v. Mary married James Battersby. vi. John E. vii. Trinidad married C.J. LeComte. viii. Stella ix. Jose Celso married Delfina Aguilar. x. Agnes married Lloyd Schurdevia. 3. Eugenio married Francisca Garcia: i. Carolina ii. Celso iii. Elvira married Miguel Torres. iv. Emma v. Eugenio. vi. Jose Angel vii. Olivia married a Munoz. V. Angel married Concepcion Ramon, widow of Bryan Callaghan: 1. Angelita married Feliciano Flores (who was in the District Attorney’s Office), son of Feliciano, son of Gregorio, son of Gaspar Flores. Feliciano Flores had a brother Gregorio, married Fay Barrera (parents of Margarita), and a brother Jose Angel. married Margarita Ogden (Eugenio and Elvira Navarro). 2. Eugenio married Juana Balderas: of whom: i. Jose Angel living in San Antonio. 3. Rosaria married twice. The Navarro property on Camaron St., “Our Reading Club” headquarters, was conveyed to John H. James, November 10, 1908, by deed from Eugenio, Juan and Agapito G. Navarro, Fred, Willie and Sarah Swisher, and her husband. Juan Martinez: 50 by 227 ft., bounded N, property of John H. James ( the James residence): Lot 22, City Block 132. This was part of the original subdivision: Angel, Celso C. and Sixto E. Navarro. II. Luciana married Teodora de Carvajal (Jose Antonio and Gertrudis Sanches): 1. Angela Maria de Jesus. III. Angela born February 1, 1824 married 1844, William G. Cook, of the Protestant Religion, from Virginia born circa 1807, son of Adam Cook, and Martha Riddle. Witnesses to this ceremony were Thomas Addicks, Juana Chaves, Luciano Navarro and Rafael de la Garza. According to the family records, Cooke, born Sept. 1771 married Martha Adam Riddell born Glaslough, Ireland 1775. Their son James born Jan. 6, 1796, Dumfines, Prince William County, Va., married Emily Margarite Pearson (William and Eleanore), born Fredericksburg, Va., Nov. 12, 1799. Their son William (brother to James) married Angela navarro (she married 2nd Isea Martin, and their son Isea, Jr., married Julia Jones: living in Uvalde, Texas) and 1. William Navarro. IV. William Navarro born 1846, near Seguin on the Navarro Ranch, married Pauline Quintile and had 9 children of whom 1. Robert married Gertrude King i. Robert. 2. Stanley married Gertrude Hugg had 3 children living in Wichita Falls. W.G. Cooke was born in Fredericksburg, Va., March 25, 1808 and moved to New Orleans and was in business there in October of 1835. His entrance into Texas with the New Orleans Grays, and his participation in Texas activities are well known. He was a commissioner with the Santa Fe Expedition, was imprisoned, but released in 1842. He was Adjutant General under the State Government. He died in Seguin, December, 1847. Cooke County was named for him: as was Cooke Camp, at the head of the San Antonio River, where the Indians were held for a time after the Courthouse Fight of 1840. He was a Congressional candidate with Maverick and Paschal in 1843.

Early American Immigration and New World Settlers
Navarro Settlers in United States in the 16th, 18th and 19th Century
Juan Navarro, went to America in 1513
Jerónimo Navarro, moved to America in 1514 with his son
Anton Navarro, who arrived in Mexico sometime between 1525 and 1528
Antonio Navarro, settled in America in 1527
Diego Navarro, who landed in Cartagena in 1534
Ana Navarro, who arrived in New Orleans in 1778
Juan Navarro, who arrived in America in 1813
Martin Navarro, who arrived in America in 1815
Jose De Navarro, who landed in Puerto Rico in 1816
Miguel Navarro, who arrived in America in 1827
Geronimo Navarro, aged 23, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1827

Vera domitus catena – True broken chain

Jose Angel Navarro III (1826-1876)

Nancy Navarro (b. 1965)

Civil War Veterans
Alejandro Navarro, 33rd Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Angel Navarro, 8th Regiment, Texas Infantry, Confederate, Texas
Celso Navarro, 8th Regiment, Texas Infantry, Confederate, Texas
Celzo Navarro, Benavides’ Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Demetrio Navarro, 1st Battalion, Arizona Infantry, Union, Arizona Territory
Eugene Navarro, 6th Regiment, Texas Infantry, Confederate, Texas
Ignacio Navarro, 1st Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Union, Texas
Juan Navarro, 33rd Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Juan Navarro, 2nd Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Union, Texas
Louis Navarro, Mallory’s Company, Virginia Local Defense, Confederate, Virginia
Mauricus Navarro, Benavides’ Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Santiago Navarro, 10th Regiment, Louisiana Infantry, Confederate, Louisiana
Seledonio Navarro, 1st Regiment, New Mexico Infantry, Union, New Mexico Territory
Sexto Navarro, 8th Regiment, Texas Infantry, Confederate, Texas
Sexton Navarro, 2nd Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Sixto Navarro, 2nd Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Valentin Navarro, Benavides’ Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Confederate, Texas
Valentine Navarro, 8th Regiment, Texas Infantry, Confederate, Texas
Valentino Navarro, 3rd Regiment, Texas Infantry, Confederate, Texas
Ygnacio Navarro, 2nd Regiment, Texas Cavalry, Union, Texas

Watch the video: Epigenética, Explicación básica. Dr. Pedro Navarro PhD


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