Grand Teton National Park is established

Grand Teton National Park is established



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

In a controversial move that inspires charges of eastern domination of the West, the Congress establishes Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming.

Home to some of the most stunning alpine scenery in the United States, the territory in and around Grand Teton National Park also has a colorful human history. The first Anglo-American to see the saw-edged Teton peaks is believed to be John Colter. After traveling with Lewis and Clark to the Pacific, Colter left the expedition during its return trip down the Missouri in 1807 to join two fur trappers headed back into the wilderness. He spent the next three years wandering through the northern Rocky Mountains, eventually finding his way into the valley at the base of the Tetons, which would later be called Jackson Hole.

Other adventurers followed in Colter’s footsteps, including the French-Canadian trappers who gave the mountain range the bawdy name of “Grand Tetons,” meaning “big breasts” in French. For decades trappers, outlaws, traders, and Indians passed through Jackson Hole, but it was not until 1887 that settlers established the first permanent habitation. The high northern valley with its short growing season was ill suited to farming, but the early settlers found it ideal for grazing cattle.

Tourists started coming to Jackson Hole not long after the first cattle ranches. Some of the ranchers supplemented their income by catering to “dudes,” eastern tenderfoots yearning to experience a little slice of the Old West in the shadow of the stunning Tetons. The tourists began to raise the first concerns about preserving the natural beauty of the region. The vast acres of Yellowstone Park, America’s first national park founded in 1872, were just north of Jackson Hole. Surely, they asked, the spectacular Grand Tetons deserved similar protection.

In 1916, Horace M. Albright, the director of the National Park Service, was the first to seriously suggest that the region be incorporated into Yellowstone. The ranchers and businesses catering to tourists, however, strongly resisted the suggestion that they be pushed off their lands to make a “museum” of the Old West for eastern tourists.

Finally, after more than a decade of political maneuvering, Grand Teton National Park was created in 1929. As a concession to the ranchers and tourist operators, the park only encompassed the mountains and a narrow strip at their base. Jackson Hole itself was excluded from the park and designated merely as a scenic preserve. Albright, though, had persuaded the wealthy John D. Rockefeller to begin buying up land in the Jackson Hole area for possible future incorporation into the park. This semisecret, private means of enlarging the park inspired further resentment among the residents, and some complained that it was a typical example of how “eastern money interests” were dictating the future of the West.

By the late 1940s, however, local opposition to the inclusion of the Rockefeller lands in the park had diminished, in part because of the growing economic importance of tourism. In 1949, Rockefeller donated his land holdings in Jackson Hole to the federal government that then incorporated them into the national park. Today, Grand Teton National Park encompasses 309,993 acres. Working ranches still exist in Jackson Hole, but the local economy is increasingly dependent on services provided to tourists and the wealthy owners of vacation homes.


Dude Ranching at Grand Teton National Park

Ansel Adams (in Series: Ansel Adams Photographs of National Parks and Monuments, 1941-1942, National Archives, 519904)

Grand Teton National Park, established in 1929, is perhaps most well-known by the iconic image captured in 1942 by photographer and environmentalist, Ansel Adams. In the foreground of this photograph, the Wild and Scenic Snake River bends itself through the terraced valley landscape. Central to the image and standing tall at 13,770 feet, the Teton Range spans the background, capped with clouds and light faintly illuminating the jagged terrain.

When this image was captured in 1942, Grand Teton National Park’s boundaries did not include the Snake River. It was not until 1950 that the boundaries were expanded through enabling legislation, and the valley stretching from the Teton Range across the sagebrush flats became part of the natural landscape that remains part of the developmental history of the park.

The buildings of White Grass Ranch are barely visible in the distance at the base of the mountains, seen here from Sky Ranch looking west. The hayfields are historic and contribute to the cultural landscape's character.

The rugged beauty of the area has attracted many in search of vacation or adventure, creating a legacy of dude ranching, climbing, and rafting that is still evident today. It must be acknowledged that this rich history of recreation in the national park is a continuation of 10,000 years of human occupation and settlement across this majestic landscape. Native American settlement and seasonal occupation is well-documented throughout Grand Teton, revealing a complex human relationship with the natural environment.

Increased visitation to Grand Teton National Park in recent years is testament to the indelible impact that landscapes have on the experience of place.

The Teton Range rises behind the irrigation system and fields of the Grand Mormon Row Historic District, one of the remaining settlements within the park.

It is the natural landscape that drew the first homesteaders and ranchers to the Jackson Hole Valley in the 1800s. Whether those early pioneers were seeking refuge from city living or were drawn by the allure of the "Wild West," men and women from across the nation and world descended on the landscape and have forever left their mark.

Early settlement of Jackson Hole, at least by non-Native American persons, included influential men and women whose long-term presence on the landscape is evident in the few dude ranches and homesteads now located within park boundaries.

White Grass Dude Ranch

White Grass Ranch is one restored example of this ranching era in Jackson Hole’s long history. Located at the base of Albright Peak and just northeast of Phelps Lake, White Grass Ranch encompassed 320 acres, comprised of two homestead claims made by westerner, Harold Hammond, and a Philadelphian transplant, George Tucker Bispham. Hammond and Bispham made improvements to their adjacent land claims (160-acres per claim) and began receiving paying guests as early as 1919.

What is a dude ranch?

Dude ranches offered their guests a unique vacation experience in the spirit of the West. The first dude ranches in Wyoming and Montana were traditional ranches that began charging guests for lodging. By the 1910s, some individuals had begun to develop facilities specifically for their visitors (usually called dudes). Brochures advertised outdoor activities like horseback riding, fishing, hunting, and hiking, aimed at clientele who were were typically wealthy residents of Midwestern and Eastern U.S. cities.

In The Diary of a Dude Wrangler, Bar BC founder Maxwell Struthers Burt describes the dude ranch:

Physically it is an ordinary ranch amplified. There is usually a large central ranch-house containing sitting rooms, a dining room, kitchens, storehouses, and so on, and scattered about the grounds, smaller cabins or houses, holding from one to four people, used as sleeping quarters. . You must do your best, even on a place where from fifty to over a hundred people are gathered together, not to destroy the impression of wilderness and isolation (52).

Period plan for the White Grass cultural landscape during the Bar BC Ranches Inc. Partnership period: 1923-1928.

Produced for NPS White Grass Ranch Cultural Landscape / Historic Structures Report, 2008

Between 1923 and 1928, Hammond and Bispham deeded their claims to Bar BC Ranches, Inc., a partnership that consisted of themselves, Struthers Burt and Horace Carncross (founders of the Bar BC Ranch), and Irving Corse and Sinclair Armstrong. White Grass was designated as the White Grass Ranch for Boys during this partnership. Thirteen cabins were added to the three that were already existing, and a concrete swimming pool was built in the hayfield. During this period, young men traveled to the ranch from from eastern universities in New York. They spent several weeks of the summer learning traditional skills and elements of ranching, emphasizing the spirit of self-reliance.

In 1928, Hammond and Bispham dissolved their partnership with Bar BC Ranches, Inc., and Hammond purchased all real property, buildings, and furnishings from Bispham. Over the next decade and with the help of his first and second wives, Hammond transitioned ranch operations to agricultural use, including cattle, irrigation, and haying. By this time, the ranch infrastructure supported both the dudes and the livestock. A separate bathhouse was constructed, and some dude cabins received bathroom additions.

Following Hammond’s death in 1939, his stepson, Frank Galey, assumed management and oversaw day-to-day operation of the ranch. Frank Galey had been born and raised in Philadelphia but had spent many summers in Jackson Hole, visiting Bar BC Ranch as a guest and working for a short time as a White Grass employee. Galey operated White Grass Ranch until his death in 1985, making it the longest-lived active dude ranch in Jackson Hole.

Prior to Galey’s passing, he and his wife, Inge Galey, sold White Grass Ranch to the National Park Service, but they reserved a lifetime estate agreement which allowed the continued use of the property for both residential and guest ranch uses.

Dude Ranch Life

The lifestyle and activities of those who lived and worked on the ranch were intimately connected to the historical patterns of the landscape.

In springtime, horses were kept in the hayfield in front of the cluster of buildings. Ranch hands cleared downed trees along the miles of horse trails, which were simply game trails that had been widened and cleared to accommodate a horse and rider. They mended and reconstructed fences, cut firewood, and sometimes mowed the lawn in front of the Main Cabin.

Each morning, wranglers rounded up horses from the ranch and surrounding land and placed them in the corral next to the barn for use by the dudes. The wranglers turned the horses out to pasture again at the end of each day. Other activities included swimming, fishing, and use of the ranch library and card room.


Staff and dudes ate separately, except on Sunday evenings, when they joined for a barbeque at the pit located on the west edge of the pasture. Staff lived at the ranch during dude season, with the male and female employees housed separately. The cabin for the cook, a springhouse, and the icehouse were gathered in a loose cluster behind the Main Cabin.

Dudes and staff used the water that ran through a main canal behind the main building cluster. Some even excavated small ditches to divert water past their cabins, where they placed bottles and cans to keep their drinks cool. The hops that were planted at the front of some of the buildings for shade and the gravel vehicle roads and informal footpaths that wound around the buildings are still part of the landscape today.

Western Center for Historic Preservation

After Frank Galey's death, the park's initial response towards managing the property was to restore it to its natural conditions. The barn and several buildings were sold and removed from the property, and fencing and water features were removed. Some stabilization measures were taken to protect the remaining buildings.

Then, in 2005, White Grass Ranch was restored by the National Park Service in partnership with the National Trust for Historic Preservation. By adaptively reusing this cultural landscape, trainees and visitors are introduced to the history of the site as well as to the practical aspects of preservation, stabilization, and rehabilitation.

Today, White Grass Ranch serves as a training facility for the Vanishing Treasures Program, run by the Western Center for Historic Preservation (WCHP). Although some landscape characteristics have been removed, the integrity and historic significance of White Grass Ranch remain and continue to convey this period of Dude Ranching and Tourism in Grand Teton National Park.

Pre-dawn light over White Grass Ranch. Now used as a training facility by the Western Center for Historic Preservation, many features of the historic landscape remain.

Grand Teton, at 13,775 feet (4,199 m), [1] is the highest point of the Teton Range, and the second highest peak in the U.S. state of Wyoming after Gannett Peak. The mountain is entirely within the Snake River drainage basin, which it feeds by several local creeks and glaciers. [2] The Teton Range is a subrange of the Rocky Mountains, which extend from southern Alaska to northern New Mexico.

Name Edit

Grand Teton's name was first recorded as Mount Hayden by the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition of 1870. However, the name "the Grand Teton" had early currency. The Edition of April, 1901 of the USGS 1:125,000 quadrangle map of the area shows "Grand Teton" as the name of the peak. A United States National Park named "Grand Teton National Park" was established by law in 1929. By 1931, the name Grand Teton Peak was in such common usage that it was recognized by the USGS Board on Geographic Names. Another shift in usage led the Board to shorten the name on maps to Grand Teton in 1970. [4]

In terms of etymology for the mountain's naming, the most common explanation is that "Grand Teton" means "large teat" or "large nipple" in French (téton), named by either French-Canadian or Iroquois members of an expedition led by Donald McKenzie of the North West Company. [5] Unsubstantiated claims exist that the mountain was named after the Teton Sioux tribe of Native Americans, even though this tribe lived about 200 miles (320 km) away in the Dakotas, not Wyoming. [6] Moreover, in terms of etymology studies, the Teton Sioux tribe's name is stated as being "not related" to the Grand Teton. [7]

First ascent Edit

There is a disagreement over who first climbed Grand Teton. Nathaniel P. Langford and James Stevenson claimed to have reached the summit on July 29, 1872. [8] However, some believe their description and sketches match the summit of The Enclosure, a side peak of Grand Teton. The Enclosure is named after a man-made palisade of rocks on its summit, probably constructed by Native Americans. Mountaineer and author Fred Beckey believes that the two climbed the Enclosure because their description better matches it and does not accurately describe the true summit, nor does it mention the formidable difficulties found just above the Upper Saddle. Beckey also believes that they summited the Enclosure because it was traditional with members of the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 to build a cairn in such a place, but no such cairn was found when William O. Owen reached the summit of Grand Teton in 1898. [9] In all likelihood, The Enclosure was first climbed by Native Americans as suggested by Langford in 1873. [10] Supporters of Owen included The Wyoming Legislature and Paul Petzoldt, former pioneer American climber. [11] Ironically among Langford's supporters was Franklin Spalding, who led the ascent to the summit and tossed the rope that allowed Owen and the others to follow. [8]

Mountaineer and author Leigh Ortenburger researched the controversy in depth, using original source material, for his 1965 climber's guidebook. Ortenburger concluded: "Since historical 'proof' is extremely unlikely to be forthcoming for either side of the argument, perhaps the best way of regarding the problem, short of a detailed analysis of the probabilities, is to state that in 1872 Langford and Stevenson may have climbed the Grand Teton, in 1893 Kieffer, Newell, and Rhyan may have climbed it, and in 1898 Spalding, Owen, Peterson, and Shive definitely did succeed in reaching the summit." [12]

First ski and snowboard descents Edit

  • First male alpine descent: Bill Briggs, 1971 [citation needed]
  • First female alpine descent: Kristen Ulmer, 1997 [13]
  • First male Telemark descent: Rick Wyatt, 1982 [citation needed]
  • First female Telemark descent: A.J. Cargill, 2004 [14]
  • First male snowboard descent: Stephen Koch, 1989 [citation needed]
  • First female snowboard descent: Dani deRuyter, 2010 [15]
  • First male disabled ski descent: Santiago Vega, 2021. [16]

Grand Teton can be climbed via the Owen-Spalding route (II, 5.4). A short section of the route is highly exposed and previous alpine climbing experience is recommended before attempting an ascent nonetheless, athletes with no prior climbing experience regularly reach the summit. The Owen-Spalding route is named for the climbers who claim to have made the first ascent: William Owen, Franklin Spalding, Frank Peterson, and John Shive. There is some debate as to which group made the first ascent see that discussion. Notwithstanding the first-ascent controversy, this climbing route has been firmly named after William Owen and Franklin Spalding. The Owen-Spalding route begins at the Lower Saddle [17] which is reached by walking from the Lupine Meadows Trailhead to Garnet Canyon and then up to the Lower Saddle on a trail that's fairly well defined. The more technical & exposed part of the climb begins at the Upper Saddle.

  • The most popular route up the mountain is via the Upper Exum Ridge Route (II, 5.5) on the Exum Ridge, an exposed route first climbed by Glenn Exum, co-founder of Exum Mountain Guides. Much of the climbing is fourth class, with one wide step from the end of Wall Street Ledge to the Ridge comprising the first stretch of technical climbing. Other notable pitches include the Golden Stair (immediately following the traverse from Wall Street Ledge), the Friction Pitch (considered the most difficult pitch on the route), and the V-Pitch. [18] The direct start of the Exum Ridge using the Lower Exum Ridge Route (III, 5.7,) is considered a mountaineering classic and is featured in the historic climbing text Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. [19]
  • In addition to the Direct Exum Ridge Route, the "Classic Climbs" listing also features the North Ridge (IV, 5.8) and North Face with Direct Finish (IV, 5.8), both of which ascend the dramatic northern aspect of the peak. The Grand Teton has the most routes listed in the Fifty Classic Climbs of North America of any peak. The only other to have more than one route listed is El Capitan, with The Nose and Salathé Wall. These inclusions have helped maintain the fame of the peak in the climbing community. Since the Grand Teton's first ascent, 38 routes with 58 variations have been established. [citation needed]

The Grand Teton has been skied by five routes, each requiring at least one rappel. The first descent on skis was made by Bill Briggs in the spring of 1971 down the East Face and Stettner Couloir, it has since been renamed the Briggs Route. This descent required a free rappel, which was completed with skis on. More casually, skiing is possible from the crest of the saddle between the Grand and the Middle Teton, continuously into the valley floor. [ citation needed ]


Grand Teton National Park: The History, the Present & the Future

Spectacular year-round, Grand Teton National Park boasts much of the same flora and fauna it has since prehistoric times. Dozens of mammals including moose, elk, deer, grizzlies, cougars, wolverines, beavers, and bison still relish in the splendors of the region. Aspen groves, the subalpine forest of fir, and Engelmann spruce seamlessly meld with alpine wildflower meadows with pockets of prairie grasses and sagebrush flats scattered about – just as they have for thousands of years. The rich history of Grand Teton lives on in the physical landscapes, the creatures that inhabit these lands, and the spirit of the individuals whom both fought for and against the park's eventual establishment in 1929.

Early History of Jackson Hole and the Grand Tetons

Legendary mountain man Jebediah Smith dubbed the valley Jackson Hole in honor of his trapping partner, David Jackson, who dearly cherished this serene place. However, these gents were far from the first to roam or lay eyes upon these lands. More than 11,000 years ago, hunter-gatherer Paleo-Indians traversed the valleys and mountains during temperate seasons indulging in the surplus of elk, bison, pronghorn, and moose that grazed here. These natives also spent time crafting tools here to use for survival and hunting, and many relics and artifacts are on display at the numerous Visitor's Centers and museums within the park. Upon arrival of harsh winters, these tribes would migrate to warmer locales.

Explorer John Colter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition navigated the Tetons during his 1807 reconnaissance of Yellowstone Country, and around 1810 Jackson Hole became a central hub for fur trading companies and trappers seeking out lucrative beaver pelts. Government expeditions of the region began in the 1850s however, it wasn't until the 1880s that the first permanent settlers took root in the valley.

Brief History of Grand Teton National Park

Adjacent Yellowstone National Park's creation received nearly unanimous public support even though it was the first national land preservation of its kind however, there was much opposition to Grand Teton earning such status. Anti-park sentiments concerning the expansion of the project hit an all-time high because the deal was to include governmental jurisdiction over affairs within Jackson Hole – a concept received by many early settlers as a threat to personal freedoms. Ultimately, it took 50 years, three government acts, and the foresight and generosity of tycoon John D. Rockefeller to make the dream of a unified and expanded Grand Teton National Park a reality.

Activities and Sightseeing in Grand Teton

Today, these parks coalesce to comprise the bulk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, an intact temperate ecosystem that happens to be one of the largest in the world. These are the mountains of dreams, and visitors come to the Tetons for the vast beauty of contrasting mountains and serene valleys, the exhilarating activities, the surplus of wildlife, and the array of comfortable lodging near Grand Teton. The park is equally stunning year round, with snow gracing the vistas each winter after the vibrant fall leaves have fallen, while warmer weather beckons water and nature enthusiast to pay a call to the majestic Tetons.

Outdoor activities abound within the park, which in the summertime include backwoods hiking, swimming, trout fishing, and floating on the Snake River. Winter enthusiasts enjoy the park's scenery, yet the action just outside the park's boundaries includes world-class snowmobiling, for which permits and fees are required.

Visitors can experience it all through an extensive collection of accessible and marked trails all along the park's most popular scenic driving routes. Teton Park Road heads from the base of the Teton Range in Moose all the way to Jackson Lake Junction, and Jenny Lake Scenic Drive follows the eastern shore of the lake heading toward the mountains. Signal Mountain Summit Road escalates nearly a thousand feet offering panoramic sights for miles.

Top hiking trails include Death Canyon, Hermitage Point, Granite Canyon, Lupine Meadows, Jenny Lake, and Leigh Lake Trailheads. Explorers are rewarded with some of the park's most stunning and unforgettable views of the mountains, lakes, and the wildlife that freely roams the park from overlooks and wildlife viewing areas such as Timbered Island, Mormon Row, Cascade Canyon, and Oxbow Bend.

Conveniently, there are six Visitor's Centers throughout the park that offer maps, guided tours of the top attractions and hiking trails, and these folks also help arrange excursions, permits, and assist with other visitor's needs.

Lodging in Grand Teton

Closest to the heart of the action, visitors will find hotels in Grand Teton very accommodating, and choosing one is simply a matter of budget and taste. Some of the most reputable hotels in Grand Teton include:

Signal Mountain Lodge – Lodge style rooms and retreats adjacent to Jackson Lake, staying at Signal Mountain Lodge puts guests in the midst of the park's finest natural wonders.

Colter Bay Cabins – Also on the shores of Jackson Lake, visitors can opt for log cabins or basic tent-cabins, and these accommodations in Grand Teton offer fishing and horseback riding amenities onsite.

Jenny Lake Lodge – Stay in the main lodge or one of the rustic guest cottages at Jenny Lake Lodge, where full-service comfort is to be expected. Jenny Lake Lodge is an all-inclusive lodging facility that includes daily breakfast and dinner, as well as activities such as horseback riding and bicycling.

Lodging Near Grand Teton and Hotels in Jackson Hole

Many opportunities exist for lodging outside the park as well. Lodging near Grand Teton or near Jackson Hole includes ample options where you will find additional amenities to complement your vacation. If visiting both Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Park are on the agenda, consider accommodations or lodging near the southern boundary of Yellowstone.

Headwaters Lodge and Cabins at Flagg Ranch – Ideal for park hoppers, these log cabins are perfect for couples and small groups and are ideally situated between the two parks. These pet-friendly accommodations near Grand Teton and Yellowstone are rugged, yet cozy.

If you prefer the excitement, shopping, dining, and nightlife of Jackson, you might consider the following Jackson Hole accommodations.

Four Seasons Resort & Spa – For those seeking pampering between sightseeing, the Four Seasons Resort overlooks picturesque Jackson Lake and the Tetons. Arguably, this is the finest lodging in Jackson Hole.

Snake River Resort & Spa – At the foothills in Teton Village, Snake River Resort & Spa offers luxury condos and well-appointed guests rooms and is a favorite within Jackson Hole Mountain Resort.

With so many glorious adventures to be had within the boundaries of Grand Teton National Park, now is the time to plan your next respite with nature.


Human History of Grand Teton National Park and Where to Find it

The human history and the cultural significance of Grand Teton National Park date back thousands of years. From the first paleo-Indians to access the region, to the fur trappers, the continued settling of Jackson Hole, the establishment of Grand Teton National Park…the history of the region is as varied and striking as the landscape. Take a trip back into history with this timeline that highlights major events in the area. You’ll also find places that allow you to learn more and imagine what it would have been like at the time. Step back and discover how the Grand Teton National Park came to be.

11,000 years ago

The first known paleo-Indians enter the Jackson Hole area. These nomadic peoples came after the glaciers of the Pleistocene age retreated. Tipi rings, fire pits, and stone tools have been found from this era, and archeologists believe that the tribes spent time in the region harvesting berries and hunting in the spring and summer months. They would follow their prey out of the valley once winter came in search of a milder climate.

8,000-1,500 years ago

Jackson Hole and the Teton area are inhabited by native peoples. Many tribes inhabited the area, including the Shoshone, Nez Perce, Gros Ventre, Blackfoot, and Crow. They were for the most part nomadic, usually starting in the valley in the spring and them moving higher in altitude as plants developed through the summer. When the first European settlers arrived in North America, the introduction of the horse changed the culture of many of the tribes in the Great Basin and Plaines regions. But those tribes in the Grand Teton area, for the most part, stuck to their traditional way of life, living on berries, roots, and game that they hunted, including small mammals, elk, deer, and mountain sheep. They also fished for trout and whitefish in the alpine lakes.

Where to Visit

Located in Moose, Wyoming, the Craig Thomas Discovery and Visitor Center hosts a collection of Native American artifacts to explore, and you can learn more about their place in history. You’ll find a raised relief map of the area to give you an overhead view of the region, and you can watch a 24-minute movie on the park: Grand Teton National Park: Life on the Edge.

Fur trappers enter the region. For the next 30 years, trapping becomes a booming trade, and it draws people from France, Germany, Mexico, Scotland, and Ireland, among other countries. Jackson Hole is actually named after one of the trappers, David E. Jackson. Jackson called the area his favorite trapping ground, and it was named for him around 1829.

Jackson Hole and the Tetons are mapped by the Hayden Survey, along with the first ascent of the Grand Teton by the Hayden expedition. This “first ascent,” however, has been up for debate.

Late 1880s: The first settlers not directly associated with the fur trade begin to establish themselves in the Jackson Hole area, more than two decades after the Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged settlement.

Where to Visit

Check out the Jackson Hole Historical Society and explore the variety of exhibits and artifacts from this time period, including an in-depth exhibit on homesteading. Founded in 1958, the museum supports education and research on the history of the region from the Native American people to the fur trade, ranching, and dude ranch eras. It has also recently focused on the importance of the region in the country’s conservation movement.

Wyoming becomes the 44th state in the union. Mormon Row was established in the 1890s when Mormon leaders sent members from Utah to develop new communities in the Tetons. These farms were consolidated near Blacktail Butte.

Where to Visit

Take a side trip to the Mormon Row Historic District, where some of the most well-known and iconic images of the Tetons can be found. Visitors also can see Menors Ferry General Store, near the spot where Bill Menor operated his ferry across the Snake River during this time. Lastly, the Cunningham Cabin Historic Site should be on your list. This is one of the last standing buildings from the original homesteaders in the Tetons.

Teton National Forest is established, and the first dude ranch (the JY Ranch) opens in Jackson Hole. This helps jump-start the region’s tourism. While the buildings are gone, the location has been turned into a preserve in 2009 and is open for visitation.

The Cunningham Cabin is one of the last standing buildings from the Homesteader era. Mark R Frye

Where to Visit

Take a trip to the Laurance S. Rockefeller Preserve, which provides visitors with the opportunity to enjoy the serenity and abundance of wildlife away from the crowds in some sections of the park. You’ll find a network of trails that go through mature forests to Phelps Lake.

Conservation becomes part of the national dialogue, and Olaus Murie begins a long-term study of elk in the Tetons. He would go on to purchase the STS Dude Ranch in Moose.

Where to Visit

The National Elk Refuge is a must-see. Take a tour, bring your camera, and enjoy the majesty of this critical part of the ecosystem.

Grand Teton National Park was established on February 26, 1929. The executive order was signed by then-President Calvin Coolidge. The original size was 96,000 acres.

Where to Visit

The Jackson Hole & Greater Yellowstone Visitor Center presents the ecological and historical facts from this monumental designation. Here you’ll find exhibits about the establishment of the park as well as information on wildlife viewing.

Congress passes legislation combining Grand Teton National Park and Jackson Hole National Monument. This was the result of years of drama between John D. Rockefeller Jr. and the federal government. Rockefeller wanted to donate his surrounding land, but the government did not have funds to protect the additional acreage. After threats and an ultimatum, they came to an agreement, and the land became the new Jackson Hole National Monument.

Colter Bay Visitor Center opens. Grand Teton National Park had seen massively increased visitation, and this helped accommodate the influx of tourists.

Where to Visit

Colter Bay Visitor Center has interactive displays, as well as a perfect launch point for hiking and other outdoor recreation.

Some of the most expansive, destructive fires in the history of the national parks burn through Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park.

Where to Visit

Drive the John D. Rockefeller Parkway to see the impact of the burn firsthand.

Jenny Lake area is developed. Tourism increases each year, and development continues with a new visitor center at Jenny Lake a few years after.

Where to Visit

Take a boat ride or hike around Jenny Lake, which has become one of the most visited spots in Grand Teton National Park.

Development of the Jenny Lake area of the national park began in 1980, and it’s now one of the most visited sections of the park. Dave Bezaire

Murie Ranch is designated as a National Historic Landmark. This was the site where the Wilderness Act came to life and still plays an important role today.

Where to Visit

You can visit the Murie Ranch, which is named for conservationists Olaus Murie and his wife, Margaret, and scientist Adolph Murie, and his wife, Louise. The four of them purchased the STES Dude Ranch in 1945, and it served as their hub for the conservation movement. The ranch, which includes 17 cabins and can accommodate up to 25 guests for meetings, now features youth and adult programming. In 2015, the ranch become home to the camps of the Teton Science Schools.


Contents

The first Jackson Lake Dam was a log-crib dam constructed in 1906–07 across the outlet of Jackson Lake, a natural lake. That dam raised the lake level by 22 feet (6.7 m), but the dam failed in 1910. A new concrete and earthen dam was constructed in stages between 1911 and 1916, [1] raising the maximum lake level to thirty feet (9 m) above the lake's natural elevation, providing a storage capacity of 847,000 acre-feet (1.045 × 10 9 m 3 ). [2] The new dam was designed by Frank A. Banks, who would later supervise the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. [3]

The reservoir was created by damming the outlet of the natural glacial Jackson Lake, with the additional height creating a storage pool for the Minidoka Project, which provides irrigation water from the Snake River for farmlands in Idaho. Jackson Lake stores and releases water which is collected by Minidoka Dam and American Falls Dam more than one hundred miles (160 km) downstream for diversion to distribution canals. [2] [4] At the time of the dam's construction, Jackson Hole and the Teton Range were as yet unprotected from development. Grand Teton National Park was established in 1929, and excluded Jackson Lake.

The lake was incorporated into Jackson Hole National Monument when it was proclaimed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt under the Antiquities Act, and became a part of Grand Teton National Park in 1950 when the park was expanded to encompass the national monument lands. When the dam was built there was no attempt to clear the shores of the lake of standing timber, resulting in an unsightly band of dead trees when the waters rose. This vista, and the mudflats created by drawdown of lake waters, were cited in later years in successful arguments against reservoirs in Yellowstone National Park. [5] [6]

Construction personnel for the dam were housed at a temporary camp that dwarfed the nearby town of Moran. Supplies came in from the Grassy Lake Road north of the park, which runs west into Idaho to meet the nearest railhead at Ashton, Idaho. [7]


Grand Teton National Park is established - HISTORY

Click on the Grand Teton Map above to download the official brochure map. If you&rsquod like a PDF copy of this Grand Teton Map click here.

Grand Teton National Park Basics

Region: Intermountain / West / Rockies

Park Size: 310,000 acres (484.38 sq miles) (1,254.53 sq km)

Location: Teton County

Closest Cities: Jackson, Wyoming

Busy Season: June to September

Visitation: 3,405,614 (in 2019)

How much does Grand Teton National Park Cost?

Grand Teton National Park costs the following from May to mid-December:

  • 7-day Passenger Vehicle Pass &ndash $35
  • 7-day Motorcycle Pass &ndash $30
  • 7-day Individual Pass &ndash $20

Grand Teton Fees from mid-December to late April

An annual Grand Teton National Park Pass cost $70 but it is not recommended you buy this pass. For an extra $10 you can get an American the Beautiful Pass. This $80 pass offers free admission to all 116 fee-charging National Park Units.

When is Grand Teton National Park Open?

Grand Teton National Park is open year-round.

Are dogs allowed in Grand Teton National Park?

Yes, pets are welcome in Grand Teton National Park but are limited to developed areas such as roads, parking areas, picnic areas, and campgrounds. Pets are not allowed on trails, pathways or to swim in park waters. Please review the Grand Teton Pet Policy before bringing your dog to Grand Teton.

Where are Grand Teton National Park&rsquos visitor centers?

Craig Thomas Discovery & Visitor Center &ndash April to October

Laurence S. Rockefeller Preserve Center &ndash June to August

Jenny Lake Visitor Center &ndash May to September

Jenny Lake Ranger Station &ndash June to August

Colter Bay Visitor Center &ndash May to October

Flagg Ranch Information Station &ndash June to September

Land Acknowledgments for Grand Teton National Park

The National Park known as Grand Teton National Park sits on Shoshone-Bannock, Apsaalooké (Crow), Eastern Shoshone, and Cheyenne land.

Thank you to the Native Land Digital for making the Indigenous territories accessible to all. They have mapped the known territories to the best of the current knowledge and is a work in progress. If you have additional information on the Indigenous nations boundaries, please let them know.

Native Land Digital is a registered Canadian not-for-profit organization with the goal to creates spaces where non-Indigenous people can be invited and challenged to learn more about the lands they inhabit, the history of those lands, and how to actively be part of a better future going forward together.

When was Grand Teton National Park Created?

Then Yellowstone National Park superintendent Horace Albright was concerned about the further developments of dams in the region south of Yellowstone and tried to add the Teton Range to Yellowstone National Park. He was opposed by locals but was able to work out a solution to have a separate National Park created. Grand Teton National Park was established on February 26, 1929. The original park was 96,000 acres that protected the Teton range and the six lakes at the base of the mountains.

While Albright won a small victory but he knew more was needed. Albright found a partner in philanthropist John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller started buying outside the park with the purposes to donate the land to NPS at a later date. When locals discovered Rockefeller&rsquos plan, congressional efforts prevent the donation. By 1942, Rockefeller feared that the donation would never happened and threaten to sell. That threat got President Franklin Roosevelt used the Antiquities Act to declare Rockefeller&rsquos 210,00 acres land holding Jackson Hole National Monument.

In 1950, Jackson Hole National Monument and Grand Teton National Park were combined to form the modern Grand Teton National Park


Management

Grand Teton National Park was established in 1929 Jackson Hole National Monument was created in 1943. The two units were combined to become present-day Grand Teton National Park in 1950. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway was established in 1972 to commemorate the philanthropic activities of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and his generous donations of lands to the National Park System. The parkway is managed as a recreation area under the administration of Grand Teton National Park.

Grand Teton National Park is in many ways emblematic of the entire National Park System. Located in the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, near the community of Jackson, Wyoming, this park is an icon for a myriad of nationally significant conservation issues including grazing, brucellosis, winter use, open space, fire management, wolf reintroduction, and water and air quality monitoring.

Grand Teton National Park is much more than a stunning mountain landscape. The park has enormously challenging issues, some of which have never been addressed. Park staff face these complex challenges at a time of limited federal budgets. In order to carry out the core mission of resource protection and visitor service, the park relies on a wide range of assistance from partner organizations, stakeholder groups, park volunteers, and a very active and involved citizenry.

You can learn more about park projects by visiting our park planning page. This page provides links to planning documents for projects in in Grand Teton National Park, including Environmental Impact Statements (EISs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), management plans, and decision documents, such as Findings of No Significant Impact (FONSIs) and Records of Decision (RODs).

Peaks, Politics, and Passion: Grand Teton National Park Comes of Age is a fitting sequel to Robert Righter's Crucible for Conservation: The Struggle for Grand Teton National Park.

Peaks, Politics and Passion continues the park story from its expansion in 1950 by the addition of the Jackson Hole National Monument, and discusses what are often controversial topics then and now. Topics such as grazing and elk hunting within the park, cultural resource management, the failure to establish any designated wilderness in the park, wildlife management, interpretation and education history, the growth of the Jackson Hole airport and other management issues that the park still struggles with .


1929 Grand Teton National Park is established

In a controversial move that inspires charges of eastern domination of the West, the Congress establishes Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming.

Home to some of the most stunning alpine scenery in the United States, the territory in and around Grand Teton National Park also has a colorful human history. The first Anglo-American to see the saw-edged Teton peaks is believed to be John Colter. After traveling with Lewis and Clark to the Pacific, Colter left the expedition during its return trip down the Missouri in 1807 to join two fur trappers headed back into the wilderness. He spent the next three years wandering through the northern Rocky Mountains, eventually finding his way into the valley at the base of the Tetons, which would later be called Jackson Hole.

Other adventurers followed in Colter’s footsteps, including the French-Canadian trappers who gave the mountain range the bawdy name of “Grand Tetons,” meaning “big breasts” in French. For decades trappers, outlaws, traders, and Indians passed through Jackson Hole, but it was not until 1887 that settlers established the first permanent habitation. The high northern valley with its short growing season was ill suited to farming, but the early settlers found it ideal for grazing cattle.

Tourists started coming to Jackson Hole not long after the first cattle ranches. Some of the ranchers supplemented their income by catering to “dudes,” eastern tenderfoots yearning to experience a little slice of the Old West in the shadow of the stunning Tetons. The tourists began to raise the first concerns about preserving the natural beauty of the region. The vast acres of Yellowstone Park, America’s first national park founded in 1872, were just north of Jackson Hole. Surely, they asked, the spectacular Grand Tetons deserved similar protection.

In 1916, Horace M. Albright, the director of the National Park Service, was the first to seriously suggest that the region be incorporated into Yellowstone. The ranchers and businesses catering to tourists, however, strongly resisted the suggestion that they be pushed off their lands to make a “museum” of the Old West for eastern tourists.

Finally, after more than a decade of political maneuvering, Grand Teton National Park was created in 1929. As a concession to the ranchers and tourist operators, the park only encompassed the mountains and a narrow strip at their base. Jackson Hole itself was excluded from the park and designated merely as a scenic preserve. Albright, though, had persuaded the wealthy John D. Rockefeller to begin buying up land in the Jackson Hole area for possible future incorporation into the park. This semisecret, private means of enlarging the park inspired further resentment among the residents, and some complained that it was a typical example of how “eastern money interests” were dictating the future of the West.

By the late 1940s, however, local opposition to the inclusion of the Rockefeller lands in the park had diminished, in part because of the growing economic importance of tourism. In 1949, Rockefeller donated his land holdings in Jackson Hole to the federal government that then incorporated them into the national park. Today, Grand Teton National Park encompasses 309,993 acres. Working ranches still exist in Jackson Hole, but the local economy is increasingly dependent on services provided to tourists and the wealthy owners of vacation homes.


Water Sports

For those itching to get on the water (and who wouldn’t, once you see those shimmering alpine lakes?), Jackson Lake is the water sports highlight of Grand Teton. Other aquatic must-dos include floating the Snake River and paddling around the impossibly scenic Leigh Lake. You can rent a boat, kayak, canoe, inflatable rafts, and even stand-up paddleboards to enjoy on the lake. However, anyone using any type of watercraft in Grand Teton is required to obtain a permit, which can be purchased online or from one of the visitor centers.


Winter Activities

Despite the harsh winters of northwestern Wyoming, Grand Teton National Park remains open and provides several activities for winter visitors. The backcountry is open for hikers and climbers, and some of the areas of the park that are closed to motorized vehicles are accessible by cross-country skiing or snowshoeing. Park naturalists offer guided snowshoe tours for those who are interested in snow science, winter ecology or who simply want to experience the park on snowshoes. Snowmobiles are permitted only for access to ice fishing on Jackson Lake.


Watch the video: GABRIELLE PETITO MISSING LAST KNOWN CONTACT IN THE GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK AREA IN WYOMING