Siege of Gaeta, 3 November 1860-13 February 1861

Siege of Gaeta, 3 November 1860-13 February 1861


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Siege of Gaeta, 3 November 1860-13 February 1861

The siege of Gaeta (3 November 1860-13 February 1861) was the last stand of Francis II, Bourbon King of Naples. After a siege that lasted 100 days he was forced to surrender, but by then his kingdom had already voted to join with Piedmont.

Francis's downfall had been triggered by Garibaldi's invasion of Sicily in May 1860. At the head of a band of 1,000 volunteers Garibaldi had captured Palermo (27 May 1860). Reinforcements had then arrived, and by the end of July he held almost the entire island. The Citadel of Messina held out, but offered no active resistance. This allowed Garibaldi to cross to the mainland. Neapolitan resistance crumbled, and on 6 September 1860 Francis II fled from Naples. Garibaldi made a triumphal entrance on 7 September, but the war was not yet won. Francis had only retreated a few miles to the north, and now held Capua and the line of the Volturno River. The worst elements of his army had deserted or been captured and he was now left with a capable force. After a few minor successes the king decided to launch a counterattack and try and retake Naples. The resulting battle of the Volturno (1 October 1860) was a hard fought victory for Garibaldi, but Francis still held Capua, and Garibaldi didn’t have a siege train.

The stalemate was broken by the army of Piedmont. Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont, had managed to convince Napoleon III, the protector of the Papal States, that the only way to protect them against a radical takeover was for Piedmont to invade the eastern states. The Papal army was defeated at Castelfidardo (18 September 1860) and the survivors besieged in Ancona (to 29 September 1860). The Piedmontese army then moved south towards the Neapolitan border. King Victor Emmanuel II joined his army, and they crossed the border on 15 October. A few days later he was greeted by Garibaldi, who handed command of his army over to the Piedmontese and prepared to go into temporary retirement. The Piedmontese army was fully equipped with a siege train, and so it took over the reduction of Francis's last strongholds. Capua fell on 2 November after a single day of bombardment. Other parts of the Neapolitan army were captured or chased into internment in the remaining part of the Papal States. This only left Gaeta, where Francis II and his Bavaria queen Maria Sophia had taken refuge.

Gaeta was a very strong defensive position. In 1861 the town was built on some flatter ground at the eastern tip of a peninsula. To the west of the town was the 167m high Mount Orlando, which filled the western side of the peninsula. The port was guarded by a fortress on the southern side of the town, while the northern shore and the western slopes of Mount Orlando were fortified. The Citadal of Gaeta was built on top of the mountain. There was a small suburb on the coastline north of the peninsula. Since then the town has expanded to the west, and now fills the plains outside the fortifications. The Neapolitans also held some outposts further away from the town, including a strong position on the Garigliano River, ten miles to the east. The garrison was 12,000 strong, so the town was well defended against any attempt to storm it.

The attack on Gaeta was carried out by the new Italian army, led by General Enrico Cialdini (This was essentially the old Piedmontese army, soon to be renamed after the formation of the Kingdom of Italy). On 29 October they were repulsed on the Garigliano, but this was followed a day or two later by a more careful attack, and the Neapolitans retreated. On 2 November the Piedmontese won another combat at Mola di Gaeta (now part of Formia, three and a half miles to the northeast of Gaeta). This opened up the coastal route to Gaeta, and allowed the Piedmontese to begin a proper siege.

The first siege lines were positioned along the edge of some higher ground to the west of the plain outside Gaeta. The town was very difficult to attack from the land, and the siege made little progress over the winter of 1860-61. The most effective tactic would have been a naval bombardment, but Napoleon III hadn't entirely abandoned Francis II. The French fleet spent the first months of the siege anchored off Gaeta, protecting the besieged town from the sea.

The formal start of the siege came on 12 November and it lasted for 100 days. During this period the Italians fired 55,000 rounds against the fortress, but their attack couldn't be effective while the French fleet remained nearby.

The stalemate was finally broken in January 1861 when the French fleet was withdrawn. This finally allowed the Italians to bring their fleet into action and to tighten the blockade. This was the final straw for Francis II, and on 13 February Gaeta surrendered. Francis II abdicated and went into exile, although his last message to his former subjects asked them not to abandon the Bourbon cause. A couple of fortresses held until into March, but the fall of Gaeta marked the real end of the Second War of Italian Independence.


Siege of Saigon

The Siege of Saigon, a two-year siege of the city by the Vietnamese after its capture on 17 February 1859 by a Franco-Spanish flotilla under the command of the French admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly, was one of the major events of the Conquest of Cochinchina (1858–62). Saigon was of great strategic importance, both as the key food-producing area of Vietnam and as the gateway to Cochinchina. [1]


Historical Events in February 1861

    Kinematoscope patented by Coleman Sellers, Philadelphia Louisiana delegation except Mr Bouligny withdraws from Congress (US Civil War) 1st meeting of Provisional Congress of Confederate States of America (US Civil War) British Vice-Admiral Robert Fitzroy issues first storm warnings for ships Confederate States of America organizes in Montgomery, Alabama (US Civil War) Jefferson Davis & Alexander Stephens elected President & VP of the Confederate States of America (US Civil War) Tennessee votes against secession (US Civil War)

Constitution of the United States

Feb 9 Confederate Provisional Congress declares all laws under the US Constitution were consistent with constitution of Confederate states (US Civil War)

Event of Interest

Feb 11 US President-elect Abraham Lincoln takes train from Spingfield IL to Washington, D.C.

    US House unanimously passes resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state State troops seize US munitions in Napoleon, Arkansas, during the US Civil War First military action to result in Congressional Medal of Honor, Arizona Abraham Lincoln declared US President in Washington, D.C. Colonel Bernard Irwin attacks & defeats hostile Chiricahua Indians Fort Point, in San Francisco, California, completed & garrisoned (but has never fired cannon in anger)

Abraham Lincoln, the Presidential Icon

Feb 16 Abraham Lincoln stops his train at Westfield on his way to Washington to thank 11-year old Grace Bedell in person for her advice to grow a beard to gain more votes

Event of Interest

Feb 18 King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia becomes first King of Italy


1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Gaeta

GAETA (anc. Caietae Portus), a seaport and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, from which it is 53 m. W.N.W. by rail via Sparanise. Pop. (1901) 5528. It occupies a lower projecting point of the promontory which forms the S.W. extremity of the Bay of Gaeta. The tomb of Munatius Plancus, on the summit of the promontory (see Caietae Portus ), is now a naval signal station, and lies in the centre of the extensive earthworks of the modern fortifications. The harbour is well sheltered except on the E., but has little commercial importance, being mainly a naval station. To the N.W. is the suburb of Elena (formerly Borgo di Gaeta). Pop. (1901) 10,369. Above the town is a castle erected by the Angevin kings, and strengthened at various periods. The cathedral of St Erasmus (S. Elmo), consecrated in 1106, has a fine campanile begun in ​ 860 and completed in 1279, and a nave and four aisles the interior has, however, been modernized. Opposite the door of the cathedral is a candelabrum with interesting sculptures of the end of the 13th century, consisting of 48 panels in bas-relief, with 24 representations from the life of Christ, and 24 of the life of St Erasmus (A. Venturi, Storia dell’ arte Italiana, iii. Milan, 1904, 642 seq.). The cathedral possesses three fine Exultet rolls, with miniatures dating from the 11th to the beginning of the 13th century. Behind the high altar is the banner sent by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the victor of Lepanto. The constable of Bourbon, who fell in the sack of Rome of 1527, is buried here. The other churches are of minor interest close to that of La Trinitá is the Montagna Spaccata, where a vertical fissure from 6 to 15 ft. wide runs right down to the sea-level. Over the chasm is a chapel del Crocefisso, the mountain having split, it is said, at the death of Christ.

During the break-up of the Roman empire, Gaeta, like Amalfi and Naples, would seem to have established itself as a practically independent port and to have carried on a thriving trade with the Levant. Its history, however, is obscure until, in 823, it appears as a lordship ruled by hereditary hypati or consuls. In 844 the town fell into the hands of the Arabs, but four years later they were driven out with help supplied by Pope Leo IV. In 875 the town was in the hands of Pope John VIII., who gave it to the count of Capua as a fief of the Holy See, which had long claimed jurisdiction over it. In 877, however, the hypatus John (Ioannes) II. succeeded in recovering the lordship, which he established as a duchy under the suzerainty of the East Roman emperors. In the 11th century the duchy fell into the hands of the Norman counts of Aversa, afterwards princes of Capua, and in 1135 it was definitively annexed to his kingdom by Roger of Sicily. The town, however, had its own coinage as late as 1229.

In military history the town has played a conspicuous part. Its fortifications were strengthened in the 15th century. On the 30th of September 1707 it was stormed, after a three months’ siege, by the Austrians under Daun and on the 6th of August 1734 it was taken, after a siege of four months, by French, Spanish and Sardinian troops under the future King Charles of Naples. The fortifications were again strengthened and in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French. On the 18th of July 1806 it was captured, after an heroic defence, by the French under Masséna and on the 18th of July 1815 it capitulated, after a three months’ siege, to the Austrians. In November 1848 Pope Pius IX., after his flight in disguise from Rome, found a refuge at Gaeta, where he remained till the 4th of September 1849. Finally, in 1860, it was the scene of the last stand of Francis II. of Naples against the forces of United Italy. Shut up in the fortress with 12,000 men, after Garibaldi’s occupation of Naples, the king, inspired by the heroic example of Queen Maria, offered a stubborn resistance, and it was not till the 13th of February 1861 that, the withdrawal of the French fleet having made bombardment from the sea possible, he was forced to capitulate.

See G. B. Federici, Degli antichi duchi, consoli o ipati della città di Gaeta (Naples, 1791) Onorato Gaetani d’ Aragona, Mem. stor. della città di Gaeta (Milan, 1879) C. Ravizza, Il Golfo di Gaeta (Novara, 1876). ( T. As. )


Military conflicts similar to or like Brigandage in Southern Italy after 1861

The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Greeks, Etruscans, and Celts have inhabited the Italian Peninsula, with various Italic peoples dispersed throughout Italy alongside other ancient Italian tribes and Greek, Carthaginian, and Phoenician colonies. Wikipedia

Administrative region of Italy. Located on the south-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, with the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Wikipedia

Macroregion of Italy consisting of the southern half of the Italian state. Once politically under the administration of the former Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily , and which later shared a common organization into Italy's largest pre-unitarian state, the Bourbon-led Kingdom of the two Sicilies. Wikipedia

The nobility of Italy (Italian: Nobiltà italiana) comprised individuals and their families of the Italian Peninsula, and the islands linked with it, recognized by the sovereigns of the Italian city-states since the Middle Ages, and by the kings of Italy after the unification of the region into a single state, the Kingdom of Italy. Nobles had a specific legal status, and held most of the wealth and various privileges denied to other classes, mainly politicians. Wikipedia

Kingdom located in Southern Italy from 1816 to 1860. The largest sovereign state by population and size in Italy prior to Italian unification, comprising Sicily and all of the peninsula of Italy south of the Papal States, covering most of the area of today's Mezzogiorno. Wikipedia

Administrative region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two coastlines: a 30-km stretch on the Tyrrhenian Sea between Campania and Calabria, and a longer coastline along the Gulf of Taranto between Calabria and Apulia. Wikipedia

State that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time the region of Ifriqiya from its founding by Roger II of Sicily in 1130 until 1816. Successor state of the County of Sicily, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula. Wikipedia

The 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state, the Kingdom of Italy. Precipitated by the revolutions of 1848, and reached completion in 1871, when Rome was officially designated the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Wikipedia

Capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy. Second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples , a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas. Wikipedia

Name of a historical region of Southern Italy. It corresponds roughly to the modern southern Lazio and northern Campania and upper north west and west border area of Molise regions of Italy. Wikipedia

Regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017. Third-most populous metropolitan city in Italy with a population of 3,115,320 residents, and its metropolitan area is the second-most populous metropolitan area in Italy and the 7th-most populous urban area in the European Union. Wikipedia

Region of Italy, located in the southern peninsular section of the country, bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. About four million. Wikipedia


Contact: Jeff Matthews

I have not spent much time in Gaeta, about 60 miles north of Naples. I recall that it has fine beaches and a picturesque waterfront. It is also an important military naval port. As the northernmost coastal city in the old Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples), Gaeta does have some interesting episodes connected with it. It is probably most familiar for the fact that it was the site of the last stand by the Bourbon army against the Italian forces of Victor Emanuel II. After leaving Naples, the last defenders of the Neapolitan Bourbon dynasty took refuge in the fortress of Gaeta (photo) and withstood a siege and withering bombardment that lasted from November 1860 to February 1861, at the end of which they surrendered, and the modern nation-state of Italy was born. (See, also, the entry on Maria Sophia of Bourbon.)

But there is another episode, not too many years before that and also connected with the political movement to unify Italy. In the "What-If" game of history —always as delightful as it is irrelevant— the unification of northern and southern Italy into a single state perhaps did not have to unfold the way it did. What if King Ferdinand II of Naples had sent forces in 1848 to join the northern armies in the First War of Italian Unification, a campaign to liberate parts of northern Italy from Austria? That might have brought about an Italian confederation of sorts with no invasion of the south necessary at all a decade later.

Actually, Ferdinand did, indeed, send an army to join the battle against Austria, but he recalled it. There are a number of reasons for that, foremost of which is that he knew that an Italian confederation would be setting up the eventual invasion of the Papal States, the large chunk of church land in central Italy that effectively stood in the way of unifying the peninsula. Ferdinand was not prepared to be part of that eventual invasion. Also, Pope Pius IX had refused to commit Papal forces and moral support to the campaign against the Catholic nation of Austria. (Obviously, the Pope also realized that a united Italy would sooner or later mean the end of the Papal States and the 1000-year-old "temporal power" of the Vatican.) Thus, Ferdinand withdrew the forces of Naples from the war, and the north went it alone in 1848 and took a beating.

(Again in the What-If game, Ferdinand's son, Francis II, took the throne of Naples a decade later and refused a similar chance to form a coalition with King Victor Emanuel of Savoy, who proposed an Italian peninsula shared by two separate states, north and south, plus a smaller version of the Church State. That was the last chance to obviate Garibaldi's invasion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.)

Part of the broad revolutionary conflicts that swept Italy —indeed, much of Europe— in 1848 was the proclamation of the Roman Republic . It was the result of a successful uprising, fomented by Mazzini's Young Italy movement, to overthrow the Pope (not as the head of the faith, but as the king of the Papal States). The Republic lasted, officially, from February 9 to July 3, 1849 but Pope Pius IX had left Rome in November of the previous year to escape possible violence against his person. (Republican agitators had already murdered the Pope's Prime Minister). The Pope went to Gaeta, where he was under the protection of the king of Naples. From his refuge in Gaeta, Pius IX called on the Catholic nations of Europe to help restore him to his See and to restore the temporal power of the Church, which the Republicans had declared defunct in one of their first proclamations.

That is precisely what happened. A broad coalition of Neapolitan, French, Austrian, and even Spanish troops (who landed at Gaeta) surrounded the Roman Republic, and not even the resourceful Garibaldi (involved in the defense of the city) could hold out against all that. The fighting was furious, but the outcome was never in doubt. The Pope returned to Rome in April of 1850 where he and his state would be protected by French troops until 1870 when Rome finally succumbed to the forces of the new Italy.

The Church of San Francesco in Gaeta was built (on the site of an earlier monastery) by Ferdinand II to honor the brief presence of the Pope in Gaeta. As well, the San Martino museum in Naples has on display a painting by the Flemish artist, Frans Vervloet showing "The Pope Greeting the Multitudes in Gaeta". For a short time, then, Gaeta was the seat of the Roman Catholic Church.

2. T he M onte O rlando U rban P ark ( G aeta)

— from mighty sword to pretty good plowshare

As you run up the coast from Naples and cross from the Province of Campania into that of Lazio, you start running into a series of protected regional parks administered by that region. If you stay on the main road, it will take you by the Roman archaological site of Minturnae (Minturno) and then around a marvelous green patch called the Regional Park of Gianola and Mt. Scauri, which includes a coastal section called the Riviera of Ulysses! That's about 50 km/30 miles up the coast.

And then you're in the Gulf of Gaeta with its major port city of that name. Gaeta has a very long history and was very important to the Romans. I have not yet got around to dealing with that—sooner or later, perhaps. The item directly above this one is mainly about the last episode of Bourbon Gaeta in 1861. What follows here below is a modern extension of that. It was brought to my attention by Fulvio Salvi of Napoli Underground (NUg), who writes on his site,

A recent trip to the Urban Park of Mt. Orlando at Gaeta brought us yet another pleasant surprise: the discovery of the Ferdinand II Museum of Natural History.
It was opened recently and is located in the old historic building that was, in fact, the Gaeta powder magazine under Frederick II, the next-to-last king of Naples. The restoration of the premises paid particular attention to maintaining the original external walls while providing modern "museum routes" within, routes that lead from history through natural history, geology and paleontology. The main exhibit hall is only the first of three spaces and is followed by a conference room and a teaching lab. The premises are in the hands of an enthusiastic band of researchers who delight in taking visitors around and showing and explaining what the museum has to offer. By reservation, you may also arrange special "theme" showings along those trails of the park that are dedicated to school field trips.

Interestingly, it still didn't register with me, and it might not with you, either, unless you are very familiar with this particular part of Italy and, specifically, Gaeta. I thought, "OK, Monte Orlando. what's that? Where's that. Oh. " There it was. It is the top photo, item 1, at the top left of this page. Mt. Orlando is, in fact, the promontory upon which the mighty Bourbon fortress of Gaeta stands, the iconic image of Gaeta, the fort that was extended and strengthened under the Spanish beginning in the 1500s and developed into a true fortress of its times. It resisted as such until the very end it is where Bourbon Naples made its last stand against the forces of United Italy and lost. (The accounts are many. Mine is here.)


Contents

Ancient times

It is the ancient 'Caieta', situated on the slopes of the Torre di Orlando, a promontory overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. Gaeta was an ancient Ionian colony of the Samians according to Strabo, who believed the name stemmed from the Ancient Greek , which means "cave", probably referring to the several harbours. According to Virgil's Aeneid (vii.1–9), Caieta was Aeneas’ (another legend says Ascanius') wet-nurse, whom he buried here.

In the classical age Caieta, famous for its lovely and temperate climate, like the neighbouring Formia and Sperlonga, was a tourist resort and site of the seaside villas of many important and rich characters of Rome. Like the other Roman resorts, Caieta was linked to the capital of the Empire by Via Appia and its end trunk Via Flacca (or Valeria), through an opposite or by-road. Its port was of great importance in trade and in war, and was restored under Emperor Antoninus Pius. Among its antiquities is the mausoleum of Lucius Munatius Plancus.

Middle Ages

At the beginning of the Middle Ages, after the Lombard invasion, Gaeta remained under suzerainty of the Byzantine Empire. In the following years, like Amalfi, Sorrento and Naples, it would seem to have established itself as a practically independent port and to have carried on a thriving trade with the Levant.

As Byzantine influence declined in Southern Italy the town began to grow. For fear of the Saracens, in 840 the inhabitants of the neighbouring Formiæ fled to Gaeta. Though under the suzerainty of Byzantium, Gaeta had then, like nearby ports Naples and Amalfi, a republican form of government with a dux ("duke", or commanding lord under the command of the Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna), as a strong bulwark against Saracen invasion.

Around 830, it became a lordship ruled by hereditary hypati, or consuls: the first of these was Constantine (839–866), who in 847 aided Pope Leo IV in the naval fight at Ostia. At this same time (846) the episcopal see of Gaeta was founded when Constantine, Bishop of Formiae, fled thither and established his residence. He was associated with his son Marinus I. They were probably violently overthrown (they disappear suddenly from history) in 866 or 867 by Docibilis I, who, looking rather to local safety, entered into treaties with the Saracens and abandoned friendly relations with the papacy. Nevertheless, he greatly expanded the duchy and began construction of the palace. Greatest of the hypati was possibly John I, who helped crush the Saracens at Garigliano in 915 and gained the title of patricius from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII.

The principle of co-regency governed the early dynasties: Docibilis associated John with him and John in turn associated his son Docibilis II with him. In 933, three generations were briefly co-ruling: John I, Docibilis II, and John II. On the death of Docibilis II (954), who first took the title dux, the duchy passed from its golden age and entered a decline marked by a division of territory. John II ruled Gaeta and his brother, Marinus, ruled Fondi with the equivalent title of duke. Outlying lands and castles were given away to younger sons and thus the family of the Docibili slowly declined after mid-century.

Allegedly, but improbably, from the end of the 9th century, the principality of Capua claimed Gaeta as a courtesy title for the younger son of its ruling prince. In the mid-10th century, the De Ceremoniis of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus lists the ceremonial title "prince of Gaeta" among the protocols for letters written to foreigners.

Prince Pandulf IV of Capua captured Gaeta in 1032 and deposed Duke John V, assuming the ducal and consular titles. In 1038, Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno took it from him and, in 1041, established the Norman counts of Aversa, who were afterwards princes of Capua, as puppet dukes. The native dynasty made a last attempt to wrest the duchy from Guaimar in 1042 under Leo the Usurper.

In 1045, the Gaetans elected their own Lombard duke, Atenulf I. His son, Atenulf II, was made to submit to the Norman Prince Richard I of Capua in 1062, when Gaeta was captured by Jordan Drengot. In 1064, the city was placed under a line of puppet dukes, appointed by the Capuan princes, who had usurped the ducal and consular titles. These dukes, usually Italianate Normans, ruled Gaeta with some level of independence until the death of Richard of Caleno in 1140. In that year, Gaeta was definitively annexed to the Kingdom of Sicily by Roger II, who bestowed on his son Roger of Apulia, who was duly elected by the nobles of the city. The town did maintain its own coinage until as late as 1229, after the Normans had been superseded by the centralising Hohenstaufen.

In the many wars for possession of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Gaeta, owing to its important strategic position, was often attacked and defended bravely. In 1194 the Pisans, allies of Emperor Henry VI in the conquest of the kingdom, took possession of the city and held it as their own.

In 1227 the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II was in the city and strengthened the castle. However, in the struggle between Emperor Frederick and the Papacy, in 1228 it rebelled against Frederick II and surrendered to the pope, after the Papal forces destroyed the imperial castle in the fray. After the peace of San Germano of 1230, it was given back to the Sicilian kingdom. In 1233, Frederick regained control of the important port and fortress. In 1279 Charles I of Anjou rebuilt the castle and enhanced the fortifications. In 1289 King James II of Aragon besieged the city in vain. From 1378 Gaeta hosted for some years antipope Clement VII. The future King of Naples Ladislaus lived in Gaeta from 1387. Here, on 21 September, he married Costanza Chiaramonte, whom he repudiated three years later.

King Alfonso V of Aragon (as Alfonso I of Naples) made Gaeta his beachhead for the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples in 1435, besieged it, and to his own disadvantage displayed great generosity, by aiding those unable to bear arms who had been driven out from the besieged town. After a disastrous naval battle he captured it, and gained control of the kingdom. He enlarged the castle, which became his royal palace, and created a mint. In 1451 the city was home to the Treaty of Gaeta, stipulated between Alfonso V and the Albanian lord, Skanderbeg: the treaty ensured protection of the Albanian lands in exchange for political suzerainty of Skanderbeg to Alfonso.

Modern era

In 1495, king Charles VIII of France conquered the city and sacked it. The following year, however, Frederick I of Aragon regained it with a tremendous siege which lasted from 8 September to 18 November.

In 1501 Gaeta was retaken by the French however, after their defeat at the Garigliano (3 January 1504), they abandoned it to Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Ferdinand the Catholic's general.

In 1528 Andrea Doria, admiral of Charles V, defeated a French fleet in the waters off Gaeta and gave the city to its emperor. Gaeta was thenceforth protected with a new and more extensive wall, which also encompassed Monte Orlando.

In the War of the Spanish Succession, on 30 September 1707 Gaeta was stormed and taken after a three-month siege by the Austrians under General Daun. On 6 August 1734 it was taken by French, Spanish and Sardinian troops under the future King Charles of Naples after a stubborn defense by the Austrian viceroy of four months. Charles' own daughter Infanta Maria Josefa of Spain was born here in 1744. The fortifications were again strengthened and in 1799 it was temporarily occupied by the French.

On 18 July 1806 it was captured by the French under André Masséna, after an heroic defence. It was created a duché grand-fief in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples, but under the French name Gaete, for finance minister Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin, in 1809 (family extinguished in 1841).

On 8 August 1815 it capitulated to the Austrians after a three months' siege. It had been attacked and partially reduced by ships of the Royal Navy on 24 July 1815.

After his flight from the Roman Republic, Pope Pius IX took refuge at Gaeta in November 1848. He remained in Gaeta until 4 September 1849.

On 1 August 1849, the USS Constitution while in port at Gaeta, received onboard King Ferdinand II and Pope Pius IX, giving them a 21-gun salute. This was the first time that a Pope set foot on American territory or its equivalent.

Finally, in 1860, it was the scene of the last stand of Francis II of the Two Sicilies against the forces of United Italy. The king offered a stubborn defense, shut up in the fortress with 12,000 men and inspired by the heroic example of Queen Maria Sophie after Garibaldi's occupation of Naples. It was not until 13 February 1861 that Francis II was forced to capitulate when the withdrawal of the French fleet made bombardment from the sea possible, thus sealing the annexation of the Kingdom of Naples to the Kingdom of Italy. Cialdini, the Piedmontese general, received the victory title of Duke of Gaeta. During the functioning of the Government of Montenegro in exile from 1919 to 1924, the headquarters of Montenegrin nationalist regular troops and rebels that supported the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty and opposed the unification of Yugoslavia (The Greens) were located in Gaeta.

Contemporary age

After the Risorgimento and until World War II, Gaeta grew in importance and wealth as a seaport. The nearby town of Elena, separated after the Risorgimento and named after the queen of Italy, was reunited to Gaeta following World War I. Mussolini transferred Gaeta from the southern region known today as Campania (formerly Terra di Lavoro, to which it is historically and culturally attached) to the central region of Lazio.

After the king dismissed Mussolini in the summer of 1943, the latter was initially taken via Gaeta to the island prison of Ponza. After Italy surrendered to the Allies, however, the town's fortunes began to decline. Recognizing its strategic importance, and fearful of an Allied landing in the area, German troops occupied the city and expelled most of the population. The zone of exclusion began with a five-kilometre border from the historical city centre. Soon after, however, the population was expelled even beyond this point. The Gaetani were finally ordered to leave the area completely. Those who could not were placed in a concentration camp, and a few were taken to Germany.

Following the Allied advance across the Garigliano and the Allied occupation of Rome, the Gaetani were allowed to return to their city and begin the process of rebuilding. In subsequent decades the city has boomed as a beach resort, and it has seen some success at marketing its agricultural products, primarily its tomatoes and olives. Many of its families count seamen among their number. However, the decades since World War II have been as difficult for Gaeta as they have been for most of Italy's Mezzogiorno. In particular, its importance as a passenger seaport has nearly vanished: ferries to Ponza and elsewhere now leave from the nearby town of Formia. All attempts to build a permanent industry as a source of employment and economic well-being for the town have failed. Notable losses include the Littorina rail line (now used as a parking lot and a marketplace), the AGIP refinery (nowadays a simple depot), and the once-thriving glass factory, which has become an unused industrial relic.

Gaeta does have a viable tourism industry, as it is a popular seaside resort. Its warm, rain-free summers attract people to its numerous beaches along the coastline, such as Serapo and Sant'Agostino Beaches. Nearly equidistant to both Naples and Rome, Gaeta is a popular summer tourist destination for people from both cities' metropolitan areas.


Siege of Gaeta, 3 November 1860-13 February 1861 - History

DATES OF U.S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION "EVENTS":
1789 to the present

* (asterisk) indicates the earliest date Presidential Electors could be "appointed" in a State (whether by Popular Vote or not) in these Presidential Elections, the latest date such Electors could be chosen (presumably, by methods other than Popular Election, such as- for example- choice by the Legislature) was, of course, the date Electors were scheduled to cast their votes in any event.

A date in italics indicates that a date other than the statutorily-defined date was utilized due to special circumstances (as explained below this table).

Four times in American History a Tabulation Joint Session of Congress itself did not declare a person to be elected either President or Vice-President (or both) on the date on which it met: a list of these circumstances follows:

  • Election No. 4 (1800) A tie in the Electoral Vote for President (at the time, each Elector voted for two persons for President) resulted in the U.S. House of Representatives (voting by State- and not as individual Congressmen)- after 36 ballots held over several days- electing Thomas Jefferson President (the other candidate in the Electoral Vote tie, Aaron Burr, became Vice President under the constitutional provisions of the time).
  • Election No. 10 (1824) No candidate having received a majority of the Electoral Vote for President (by now, under terms of the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Electors voted separately for President and Vice-President: John Calhoun had already received a majority of the Electoral Vote for Vice-President), the U.S. House of Representatives, voting (by State- and not as individual Congressmen) on a single ballot, elected- as President- John Quincy Adams, who had finished second to Andrew Jackson in the Electoral Vote for President.
  • Election No. 13 (1836) No candidate having received a majority of the Electoral Vote for Vice-President (Martin Van Buren had already received a majority of the Electoral Vote for President), the U.S. Senate (voting as individual Senators- not by State) elected, as Vice-President, Richard Mentor Johnson.
  • Election No. 23 (1876) As described more fully below this table, disputed Electoral Votes coming out of several States made it impossible for Congress- via the ordinary constitutional machinery- to determine just who had been elected both President and Vice-President.

Election No. [for (N)th Administration]:

As is the case with Congresses of two years' duration each, Presidential Administrations of four years' duration- likewise- can be numbered (in fact, the number of a given four year "Administration" is half of the number of the later of the two Congresses in office during that Administration: for example, because it was the 110th Congress that was meeting during the last two years of President George W. Bush's second term, those four years of that term make up the 55th Administration [110/2 = 55]).

Although it is altogether unofficial, Presidential Elections can be numbered according to the number of the Administration of the President that has been elected therein (thus, the 2004 Presidential Election- which resulted in President George W. Bush being elected to a second term [again, the aforementioned 55th Adminstration]- was Presidential Election No. 55).

Date Presidential Electors "appointed" [Presidential Election]:

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress.
from Article II, Section 1, clause 2 of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

The "appointment" (to use the proper constitutional language, as seen above) of Presidential Electors is what ordinary Americans mean when we say 'Presidential Election' - even though many Americans are most unaware that they are really choosing a slate of Electors rather than, as they would describe what they are doing, "voting for President" (and- obviously, at the very same time- Vice President).

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors.
from Article II, Section 1, clause 4 of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

Nowadays, this is the day United States citizens resident in the 50 constituent States of the Union and the District of Columbia who wish to vote in said Presidential Election (and are, indeed, eligible [and have registered] to do so) go to their respective polling places and cast their votes (although several States now permit Early Voting and, even apart from this, many Americans will vote by Absentee Ballot- in each case, actually casting votes well before this date [but their votes will not be counted until this date])- but, in the earliest days of the Federal Republic, it was merely the date- or dates- on which each State formally chose its Presidential Electors (whether such choice was by Popular Vote of the State citizenry or not-- not until 1836 did all but one State allow for Popular Vote for President [in reality, the People of the States "appointing"- to use the language found in the U.S. Constitution itself- their State's Presidential Electors thereby]).

What follows is the actual text of the regulations for said Presidential Election (again, this being the date Presidential Electors are to be "appointed") and the election years in which a given regulation was actually in effect:

. [T]he first Wednesday in January next be the day for appointing Electors in the several States.
from Resolution of 13 September 1788 by the Confederation [=Continental] Congress

. [E]lectors shall be appointed in each State for the election of a President and Vice-President of the United States, withint thirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday in December, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, and within thirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday in December in every fourth year succeeding the last election, which Electors shall be equal to the number of Senators and Representatives, to which the several States may by Law be entitled at the time.
from 1 Stat. 239, Section 1

. [T]he Electors of President and Vice-President shall be appointed in each State on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November of the year in which they are to be appointed.
from 5 Stat. 721

although the date of the Presidential Election itself was not at all changed, the verbiage in the relevant statute was later tweaked as follows:

The Electors of President and Vice President shall be appointed, in each State, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in every fourth year succeeding every election of a President and Vice President.
from 62 Stat. 672, now codified as United States Code: Title 3, section 1 [3 USC 1]

Date Electors cast their votes in the several States:

The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot.
from Article II, Section 1, clause 3 of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (language retained in the 12th AMENDMENT to the U.S. Constitution)

The Presidential Electors so "appointed"- nowadays, however indirectly, by vote of the People in each of the several States of the Union (and D.C.)- must later meet in each jurisdiction (note that- despite prevalent use of the term- there is no such thing as a single "Electoral College" all meeting together rather, the Electors from each State [and D.C.] meet separately- thus, there are really 51 separate "electoral colleges") and cast their votes for President and Vice-President.

[The Congress may determine]. the day on which [the Electors] shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
from Article II, Section 1, clause 4 of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

Even though they do meet separately, the Electors must meet on the very same day and the actual text of the regulations governing just which day is to be the date of these separate "electoral colleges"- along with the election years in which said regulations were in force- follow:

. [T]he first Wednesday in February next be the day for the Electors to assemble in their respective States and vote for a President.
from Resolution of 13 September 1788 by the Confederation [=Continental] Congress

. [T]he Electors shall meet and give their votes on the. first Wednesday in December.
from 1 Stat. 239, Section 2

. [T]he Electors of each State shall meet and give their votes on the second Monday in January next following their appointment.
from 24 Stat. 373, Section 1

The Electors of President and Vice President of each State shall meet and give their votes on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment
from 62 Stat. 673, now codified as United States Code: Title 3, Section 7 [3 USC 7]

Date Electoral Vote tabulated by a Joint Session of Congress:

. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates [containing the Electoral Vote from each jurisdiction], and the votes shall then be counted.
from Article II, Section 1, clause 3 of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (language retained in the 12th AMENDMENT to the U.S. Constitution)

Even with the Presidential Electors having met and fufilled their constitutional obligations, a President (or, for that matter, Vice President) of the United States is not officially elected unless and until the Congress of the United States says he or she is. In this regard (and despite the oft-heard claim that the U.S. Supreme Court "really" elected George W. Bush President back in 2000), Congress is- more or less- the "umpire" or "referee" in any and all Presidential Elections.

A Joint Session of Congress counts and tabulates the Electoral Vote sent to it by the "electoral colleges" in the several States and the District of Columbia (thus, this meeting of the Federal legislature is colloquially referred to as the "Tabulation Joint Session") and then- assuming, of course, that a candidate has received a majority of the total Electoral Vote- officially declares just who has been elected President (and Vice President).

As with the dates of the Presidential Election (that is, "appointing" of the Electors) and the several "electoral colleges" themselves, the date on which Congress holds this Tabulation Joint Session is also regulated by statute. What follows is the actual text of such regulations (and, again, the elections for which they were in effect):

. [T]he first Wednesday in March be the time. for commencing proceedings under the. Constitution.
from Resolution of 13 September 1788 by the Confederation [=Continental] Congress
(NOTE: Thus, 4 March 1789 was the earliest date on which the Electoral Vote could be formally counted by Congress as things turned out, the First Congress did not achieve a quorum in both houses [necessary in order to hold a Joint Session of the entire Congress] until 6 April 1789 and, so, the Electoral Vote coming out of the first Presidential Election was not counted and tabulated by Congress until that date)

1792 through 1872 1880 through 1932:

. Congress shall be in session on the second Wednesday in February, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three, and on the second Wednesday in February succeeding every meeting of the Electors, and the certificates [containing the Electoral Vote from each jurisdiction]. shall then be opened, the votes counted, and the persons who shall fill the offices of President and Vice-President ascertained and declared, agreeably to the Constitution.
from 1 Stat. 239, Section 5
[NOTE: The Election of 1876 (the [in?]famous 'Disputed Election' between Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes) was a special case-- please see what immediately follows]

. [T]he Senate and House of Representatives shall meet. on the first Thursday in February, anno Domini eighteen hundred and seventy-seven.
from 19 Stat. 227, Section 1

It became apparent, well before the Tabulation Joint Session of Congress following this Presidential Election (that is, the "appointing" of Electors by the People of the several States via the ballot) was scheduled to meet on 14 February 1877, that something was terribly wrong with the Electoral Vote coming out of the meetings of more than a few "electoral colleges" held on 6 December 1876: not only would the Electoral Vote be altogether close (as could be easily discerned from the reports of the Popular Returns in each State as already published in newspapers around the Nation) but at least three States in the South (this still being the era of post-Civil War Reconstruction) were sending two sets of Electoral Votes- one in favor of each Major Party presidential candidate- to Congress. To make matters worse, one of these Major Parties controlled one house of the (in those days, it was the outgoing ["lame duck"]) Congress, while the other Party controlled the other (so there was no possibility of a mere Party line vote in Congress electing one Party's candidate President in any event).

To this end, Congress quickly passed legislation (it was signed into law by outgoing President Ulysses S. Grant on 29 January 1877) completely bypassing the whole, more usual, process of Electoral Vote counting, instead requiring Congress to hold what would otherwise be the normal Tabulation Joint Session early- in this case, on 1 February 1877- to discern just which States were in dispute and then formally handing such disputes over to a so-called "Electoral Commission" consisting of Senators, Congressmen and U.S. Supreme Court Justices appointed to the task by Congress itself (the earlier-than-usual meeting of Congress in Tabulation Joint Session was intended to buy the Electoral Commission more time [an extra fortnight] in which to resolve these disputes, for there was ever a looming deadline of 4 March 1877, on which date a new President- whoever it turned out to be- would have to take office [if only because, by a combination of constitutional fiat and Federal statute, President Grant's term ended- no matter what!- on that very date]).

. [after the Electoral Commission has determined which Electors' vote shall be officially counted in each of the disputed States] the two houses shall again meet, and such decision [of the Electoral Commission] shall be read and entered in the journal of each House, and the counting of the [Electoral] votes shall proceed in conformity therewith.
from 19 Stat. 227, Section 2

Congress, thus, would have to hold a "follow-up" Joint Session after the Electoral Commission had reported its decision as regarded each State re: which its Electoral Vote was in dispute and the last such Joint Session to count and tabulate a disputed State's Electoral Vote as decided by the Electoral Commission was held on 2 March 1877, just two days before the new President thereby elected [Rutherford B. Hayes] would constitutionally take office (interestingly, Hayes was not publicly inaugurated until 5 March 1877 because 4 March- the date on which, at the time, a newly-elected Congress as well as a newly-elected President took office- happened to fall on a Sunday that year however, because the 1876 Presidential Election dispute had been so politically charged [the vote of the Electoral Commission itself had been along Party lines, 8-7 in favor of the Republican Electors, in all disputed cases], there were actual fears of a coup d'etat instigated by supporters of Tilden! Thus, Hayes was first sworn in privately, at the White House on the invitation of outgoing President Grant, on the evening of Saturday 3 March [it also didn't help that neither Constitution nor statute made clear just when, on 4 March, the President actually took office inaugurating the President during the day was traditional but there was an argument to be made that his Term of Office, as well as those of Congressmen and newly elected or re-elected U.S. Senators- had actually begun at Midnight Local Mean Time in Washington (Standard Time was still a decade away in 1877): to this end, an outgoing Congress- never all that sure it had any authority to act early on a given 4 March- always adjourned sine die no later than 3 March. it is for this very reason that the 20th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution- which moved up the beginnings of terms of members of Congress to 3 January and the term of a President to 20 January- purposely makes clear that terms of office begin- and end- at Noon in the Nation's Capital (now on Eastern Standard Time, of course)]).

Congress shall be in session on the sixth day of January succeeding every meeting of the Electors. [and] all the certificates and papers purporting to be certificates of the electoral votes. shall be opened, presented, and acted upon.
from 62 Stat. 675, now codified as United States Code: Title 3, section 15 [3 USC 15]

There have been, since the 1936 Presidential Election, six exceptions to 6 January being the date for the Tabulation Joint Session: two of these were merely because 6 January happened to fall on a Sunday- in 1957 and 1985- and, in each such case, the Tabulation Joint Session was held on the following day (thus, these do not appear in italics in the table above).

Four other cases, however, were expressly permitted by statute:

[I]n carrying out the procedure set forth in section 15 of Title 3, United States Code, for 1989, `the fourth day of January' shall be substituted for `the sixth day of January' in the first sentence of such section.
102 Stat. 3341 (adopted 9 November 1988)--
thereby, the Tabulation Joint Session of Congress resulting from the 1988 Presidential Election was held two days early relative to the statutory date- on 4 January 1989

The meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives to be held in January 1997 pursuant to section 15 of Title 3, United States Code, to count the electoral votes for President and Vice President cast by the electors in December 1996 shall be held on January 9, 1997 (rather than on the date specified in the first sentence of that section).
110 Stat. 3558 (adopted 11 October 1996)--
thereby, the Tabulation Joint Session of Congress resulting from the 1996 Presidential Election was held three days late relative to the statutory date- on 9 January 1997 (this last was necessitated by the newly-elected 105th Congress not even first convening for its First Session until 7 January of that year)

The meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives to be held in January 2009 pursuant to section 15 of title 3, United States Code, to count the electoral votes for President and Vice President cast by the electors in December 2008 shall be held on January 8, 2009 (rather than on the date specified in the first sentence of that section).
122 Stat. 4846 (adopted 15 October 2008)--
thereby, the Tabulation Joint Session of Congress resulting from the 2008 Presidential Election was to be held two days late relative to the statutory date- on 8 January 2009 (this last necessitated by the newly-elected 111th Congress not even first convening for its First Session until 6 January of that year)

The meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives to be held in January 2013 pursuant to section 15 of title 3, United States Code, to count the electoral votes for President and Vice President cast by the electors in December 2012 shall be held on January 4, 2013 (rather than on the date specified in the first sentence of that section). 126 Stat. 1610 (adopted 28 December 2012)--
thereby, the Tabulation Joint Session of Congress resulting from the 2012 Presidential Election was to be held two days early relative to the statutory date- on 4 January 2013 (this last necessitated by the fact that 6 January happened to fall on a Sunday that year).

In these four cases immediately above, the date of the Tabulation Joint Session does appear in italics in the table.


Contents

January–March

      captures Mexico City.
    • First steam-powered carousel recorded, in Bolton, England. Ώ]
    • American Civil War: The U.S. House unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing non-interference with slavery in any state.
    • About 850 convicts at Chatham Dockyard in England take over their prison in a riot. ΐ]
      is organized as a United States territory.
    • American Civil War: Texas is admitted to the Confederate States of America.
      is sworn in as President of the United States. Γ]
    • American Civil War: The "Stars and Bars" is adopted as the flag of the Confederate States of America.
      completely destroys Mendoza, Argentina.
    • Italian unification: The surrender of Civitella del Tronto ends the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

    April–June

      – A population census is taken in the United Kingdom. – The American Civil War begins with the bombardment of Fort Sumter, South Carolina. – American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Southern forces. – American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln issues a Proclamation calling for 75,000 men to confront in the South, "combinations too powerful to be suppressed in the ordinary way". – American Civil War: The state of Virginia secedes from the Union. – American Civil War: Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia. (N.S.) – Bezdna in Russia is the scene of a peasant uprising the military open fire and nearly 5000 are killed. Δ] – American Civil War: The Union Army arrives in Washington, D.C. – Giovanni Schiaparelli discovers the asteroid69 Hesperia. – American Civil War:
      • President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in the United States.
        : The British merchant ship North Star leaves Hong Kong for Nagasaki, Japan. Chinese pirates board the vessel, kill an officer, and escape with a large quantity of gold. Ε]
      • American Civil War: Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom issues a "proclamation of neutrality" which recognizes the breakaway states as having belligerent rights. C/1861 J1 (the "Great Comet of 1861") is discovered in Australia.
        – American Civil War: The state of Virginia's ordinance of secession from the United States is ratified in a referendum held on May 23, 1861. – Establishment of Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce – The Règlement Organique: With the approval of European powers, the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate is established as a semi-autonomous sub-division separate from the Sidon Eyalet. An Ottoman Armenian, Davud Pasha, is appointed Mutasarrıf by the the Ottoman Sultan. – Benito Juárez is formally elected President of Mexico he temporarily stops the payments of foreign debt. – Tooley Street fire starts and takes the life of James Braidwood first director of the London Fire Brigade. – Abdülmecid I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1839–1861) dies and is succeeded by Abdülaziz (1861–1876).

      July–September

        • The first issue of the Vatican's newspaper L'Osservatore Romano is published. : French and Imperial Chinese troops defeat Taiping forces at the Battle of Shanghai.
          • American Civil War: In order to help pay for the war effort, the United States government issues the first income tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861 (3% of all incomes over US$800 rescinded in 1872).
          • The U.S. Army abolishes flogging.

          October–December

            – American Civil War: Battle of Santa Rosa Island – Confederate forces are defeated in their effort to take the island. – American Civil War: Battle of Ball's Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, is killed in the fighting. – Template:HMS, the world's first ocean-going (all) iron-hulled armored battleship, is completed and commissioned into the British Royal Navy. – Toronto Stock Exchange established in Canada. – The Pony Express announces its closure. – American Civil War: The Missouri legislature takes up a bill for Missouri's secession from the Union. – American Civil War: The bill for Missouri's secession from the Union is passed.
            • The Spanish, French and British governments sign a tripartite agreement to intervene in Mexico, in the hope of recovering unpaid debts. Η]
            • The Missouri secession bill is signed by Governor Jackson.
            • American Civil War: Citing failing health, Union General Winfield Scott resigns as Commander of the United States Army.
            • American Civil War: Kentucky is accepted into the Confederate States of America.
            • In southern French Indochina, resistance forces led by Nguyễn Trung Trực ambush, board and sink the French lorcha (boat)L'Esperance on the Nhat Tao canal.

            Date unknown

            • The British Empire establishes bases in Lagos to stop the slave trade. signed between Bahrain and the United Kingdom.
            • First industrial meat packing plant in Uruguay established at Fray Bentos.
            • The Royal Seminary become the first publicinstitution of higher academic learning open to women in Sweden.

            Europe 1861: Kingdom of Italy

            The conquest of the Two Sicilies left the Kingdom of Sardinia in control of the entire Italian peninsula except for the French-garrisoned Papal States and the Austrian controlled northeast. On March 17 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, with the former Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia as its ruler.

            Main Events

            20 Dec 1860 Secession of South Carolina▲

            On 9 November 1860 the South Carolina General Assembly passed a “Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act” and stated its intention to declare secession from the United States. The following month, on 20 December, South Carolina declared its secession from the Union as the “Republic of South Carolina”, becoming the first of the slave states to secede. in wikipedia

            13 Mar 1861 Siege of Gaeta▲

            The Expedition of the Thousand rapidly forced the King Francis II and his loyalists to retreat to the fortified port city of Gaeta. The Sicilians were convinced to negotiate in December 1860, when the city was ravaged by Typhus, but didn’t accept conditions until February 1861. Francis fled to Rome and formed a government in exile. in wikipedia

            17 Mar 1861 Kingdom of Italy▲

            Four days after the surrender of Francis II of the Two Sicilies, Sardinian King Victor Emanuel summoned Parliament to proclaim the Kingdom of Italy. in wikipedia


            Watch the video: The Best Documentary Ever - VICKSBURG 1863


Comments:

  1. Dozragore

    I don't like it.

  2. Sahale

    What a remarkable phrase

  3. Hu

    Thank you :) Cool topic, write more often - you are doing great :)

  4. Kigashura

    Why nonsense, it is ...



Write a message