Boeing C-73

Boeing C-73


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Boeing C-73

The Boeing C-73 was the military designation given to a number of Model 247 twin-engine transport aircrafts that were taken into military service early in the Second World War.

The Model 247 was an advanced design for its time and was the first low-wing twin-engine transport aircraft to enter production in the United States. It used features developed for the Model 200 Monomail (C-18) and the unsuccessful B-9 design. It was designed to replace the previous generation of Trimotor transports, and was lighter, faster and more reliable than those aircraft. It could carry ten passengers in a cabin located above the wing (one problem with this was that the main wing spars passed right through the middle of the passenger cabin.

The Model 247 was a commercial success. United Air Lines placed the first order, for 70 aircraft, in 1932, 11 of which were completed as the Model 247D, which had NACA engine cowlings, fabric covered tail surfaces and controllable pitch propellers. The Model 247D was much faster than the basic Model 247 and the older aircraft were upgraded to the new specification.

Twenty-seven Model 247Ds were commandeered from the airlines in 1942 as the C-73. Most retained their S1H1 Wasp engines, but others got military specification Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 engines. The C-73 had a fairly short wartime career. They were declared surplus in 1944 and nineteen were sold back into private hands. Amongst the units to use the type was the 430th Bombardment Squadron, which had it in 1943-44 when it was being used to test equipment.

The Model 247 was also used by the RCAF, which operated eight.

Engine: Two Pratt & Whitney R-1340-53 radial engines
Crew: 2
Span: 74ft
Length: 51ft 7in
Height: 12ft 2in
Empty Weight: 9,140lb
Gross Weight: 13,650lb
Maximum Speed: 200mph
Cruising Speed: 189mph at 12,000ft
Climb rate: 1,150ft/ min
Ceiling: 25,400ft
Range: 745 miles
Payload: 400lb and 10 troops


Model Airplane Memories

60_57.jpg" />According to the history books and a few photographs, the USAAC lifted 27 Boeing 247s from the airlines to serve as personnel transports. This happened some time in 1942, hence the rather high designation number for such an old airplane. One can find about a half dozen decent photographs of C-73s on the Internet. One interesting one is shown on a Boeing advertisement in a magazine from 1942. It shows an olive drab painted C-73 with 1942 style stars, and no other visible markings. Another shows what may be an all metal finish or gray-painted 247 with 1943 style stars and bars. It's hard to know if the C-73s had the forward-pointed windshield or the slicked-back "Turner" windshield, or a mixture of both. I figured the Army most likely had both, depending on whatever they grabbed from United, Western, or whomever was flying them at the time. I wasn't worried either about the accuracy of the color scheme or the stars for my model, since all 27 C-73s could have looked different. I put the number "04" on the tail, to suggest it was an early conscript, and perhaps the fourth 247 to be put into military service. The interior is the standard United Airlines scheme. The few pictures I found of C-73s were taken at U.S. military airfields, suggesting that perhaps these ships were flown mainly within the CONUS as short-hoppers for brass going from base to base for meetings, formations, and such.

Regardless of whether or not my "C-73" is accurate, it was fun to build and I like the way it looks. This was Williams Bros. first full airplane model kit. Before the 247 they had made scale models of vintage rotary airplane motors and machine guns. I can't say it's the most well-engineered kit I've ever put together there are numerous problems with poor fitting parts. This model, and the ones that followed such as the Martin B-10B, Northrop Gamma, and Curtiss C-46 were intended for experienced modelers skilled at manipulating styrene and modifying small plastic parts. Still, this is one I'm going to keep on my shelf for a while.

3 comments:

Nice job. I have this kit but I'll probably make it according to the instructions.

I know what you mean. I had a change of heart and converted this one into a proper United airliner.

Congrats, really fine! The gray shade/shine looks pretty much the real thing, what paint reference did you use?


Southwest Airlines Community

Boeing's 737 has allowed Southwest Airlines to fly to greatness, and conversely, Southwest’s longtime support has played a major role in the continued success of the most prolific jetliner in aviation history. Today’s announcement about Southwest assuming the role of launch customer for the new 737 MAX further reinforces that relationship.

Look back to a steamy June morning 40 years ago. Who could have guessed how this relationship would prosper? Southwest began operation with a tiny fleet of three brand-new 737-200s that had been refused by longtime 737 operators PSA and Aloha. The upstart airline was able to finance their purchase thanks to Boeing, and to the best of my memory, this was the first time since the legacy carriers began service in the 1920s and 1930s that a domestic airline had begun service utilizing new, factory-delivered aircraft. The post-war local service airlines and the California intrastate carriers, PSA and Air California, had relied on war surplus and hand-me-downs from the larger airlines.

Southwest’s first batch of standard 737-200s were supplanted by 737-200 Advanced aircraft (shown above) with more powerful (and cleaner) powerplants.

Deregulation in 1978 allowed Southwest to expand beyond the borders of Texas, but it needed an aircraft that would allow it to compete on longer routes from San Antonio and Houston to the West Coast. The larger 737-300, with its more powerful engines, greater range, and greater performance was the perfect airplane. Southwest and US Airways were the launch Customers. Ironically, none of the other airlines showed initial interest as they were happy with the 737-200 for shorter flights and had 727s serving the same markets that would be flown by the 737-300. Without the launch customers’ support, the 737 line might well have ended with the -200. (As an interim measure, Southwest leased six 727-200s from PeopleExpress to serve flights to the West Coast.) The brand new 737-300 made its worldwide airline debut on December 17, 1984. Because this was the anniversary of the Wright Brothers first flight, the aircraft, N300SW, was named The Spirit of Kitty Hawk (above Chuck Yeager with Herb Kelleher) . It is now on permanent display at the Frontiers of Flight museum in Dallas.

The 737-300 was the forerunner of the “Classic 737” family that includes the larger 737-400 and the smaller 737-500 (above, courtesy Jon Proctor). Southwest was also the launch airline for the 737-500, with the first aircraft entering worldwide airline service on March 5, 1990. Soon airlines all over the world began flocking to the 737-300 and its kin as they discovered its reliability and economy.

Southwest continued to grow and became a coast-to-coast airline serving all of America in the 1990s. Once again, Southwest stepped forward to take the lead on an aircraft that would take the airline into the new millennium—the Boeing 737-700. This 737 flies higher, farther, and faster than the earlier versions with fewer emissions. Like the -300, the 737-700 is the forerunner of a new range of aircraft that also include the 737-600, 737-800, and 737-900. These aircraft comprise the 737 Next Generation or 737NG. On January 18, 1998, Southwest introduced the 737-700, the first NG aircraft, with service from Dallas to Harlingen, via Houston Hobby (above). N700GS was the landmark aircraft. While most of Southwest’s NG previous orders have been for the -700, the larger 737-800 will enter Southwest service early next year.

Today’s announcement that Southwest will be the launch airline for the new 737 MAX series is another milepost on the 737 road. When it enters service in 2017, this brand new aircraft will offer reduced fuel usage, along with significantly reduced emission levels, and will provide the lowest operating costs among single-aisle aircraft. Not only that, this will be the fourth Boeing aircraft that Southwest has taken a lead role in introducing.


State order targets Boeing Everett plant’s polluted history

Records show a dispute over cleanup requirements for chemically tainted water. The company denies there’s a disagreement.

EVERETT &mdash Notices along Powder Mill Creek offer a warning:

&ldquoCREEK CLEAN UP IN PROGRESS. NO WADING. NO DRINKING.&rdquo

For years, the bulletins have been some of the few public signs of the industrial toxins migrating from what&rsquos just upstream: the Boeing Co.&rsquos Everett plant.

The manufacturing powerhouse, in operation since the late 1960s, is the source of a plume of contaminated groundwater that extends roughly 2,800 feet from the head of a steep canyon, northward into the creek, until about a mile from where the small waterway empties into Puget Sound.

The tainted water, which comes from beneath an asphalt-lined stormwater basin on the northern reaches of Boeing&rsquos property, is laden with Trichloroethylene.

TCE is a solvent that&rsquos used to degrease metal parts during the manufacturing process &mdash and a known carcinogen to humans.

Last year, it was detected in the gulch groundwater at a concentration more than 1,000 times the state limit.

First found in creek water in the gulch in the late 1990s, TCE is one of many pollutants that has seeped into the soil and groundwater beneath Boeing&rsquos property during the past 50 years, state records show.

The aerospace giant will spend millions of dollars and decades cleaning up the mess under a state-mandated plan that&rsquos now in draft form.

The proposal, a 163-page document preceded by a set of voluminous studies, is open for public comment until 11:55 p.m. on April 19.

&ldquoBoeing is in the final stages of environmental cleanup at our Everett site, under a draft set of studies, plans and orders and other documents available for public comment from the Washington Department of Ecology,&rdquo the company said in a written statement. &ldquoWe are committed to a comprehensive cleanup of the Powder Mill Gulch area of Everett and have made considerable progress in reducing groundwater contamination through a variety of interim action cleanup activities. Our cleanup plans now available for comment build on these efforts.&rdquo

&ldquoContamination beneath the site does not pose a risk to site employees or visitors,&rdquo a company spokesperson said. &ldquoBoeing operations are not expected to be affected by the cleanup activities.&rdquo

The company has for years disputed some of the Ecology Department&rsquos conclusions about what standards must be met at the plant for the job to be deemed complete, records show.

Many of those conflicts have been resolved as the plan has taken shape. But two major sticking points remain, including the cleanup criteria the state has selected for the tainted groundwater.

The company denies there is any disagreement.

&ldquoBoeing and Ecology agree on the cleanup approach for the Everett facility and Powder Mill Gulch, and Boeing is pleased to move into the main cleanup phase of the project,&rdquo the company spokesperson said.

Boeing has taken some steps to limit the amount of contaminated water flowing from its property however, testing shows TCE levels within the plume still remain &ldquoseveral orders of magnitude&rdquo over Ecology&rsquos groundwater cleanup threshold, the plan says.

That maximum criteria is 0.38 micrograms per liter.

In February 2020, the highest TCE concentration measured within the plume was 480 micrograms per liter.

TCE levels were observed as high as 31,000 micrograms per liter in 2005, according to cleanup documents.

In 2003, the chemical was discovered in the underlying Esperance Sand aquifer, which begins 60 to 70 feet below the surface of the Boeing property.

Though the creek is not a source of drinking water, the TCE levels pose a danger to aquatic plants and animals and could put people or other animals that come in contact with the creek at risk, according to the cleanup documents.

A litany of other contaminants have been discovered at the roughly 1,000-acre Boeing site, which stretches from the northeast corner of Paine Field, north of Highway 526 and toward Mukilteo. The list includes fuels such as oil and gasoline, lead, hydraulic jet fluid, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

The chemicals came from a range of manufacturing operations by way of leaking underground storage tanks and pipes, spills, stormwater discharges and other &ldquoreleases,&rdquo according to the cleanup documents.

&ldquoThe data from this site&rsquos remedial investigation indicated that the soil and groundwater contamination came from historic practices and incidents,&rdquo Ecology said in a written statement. &ldquoToday&rsquos dangerous waste requirements specifically aim to prevent such releases.&rdquo

A former gun club, which occupied part of the site decades ago, is also considered a source of lead and other metals however, much of the contaminated sediment remaining there will be addressed in a separate cleanup plan that has not yet been written.

Since the 1980s, the company has held a permit that allows it to store dangerous waste on-site for up to 90 days under the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. That permit is now up for renewal, and the public can comment on that application, too.

Ecology regularly inspects the plant to confirm that contaminants are being properly handled, stored and disposed of.

Boeing &ldquono longer uses TCE as a widespread cleaning solvent as it did in the past,&rdquo the department said. Small quantities of the chemical are still used in one of its labs, according to Ecology.

A map of chemical pollution points at Boeing&rsquos Everett site, from a trove of documents posted online by the state Department of Ecology.

The enforcement order

Over the past two decades, Boeing has studied the extent of the contamination and assessed cleanup options, as required under the state&rsquos environmental cleanup law, the Model Toxics Control Act.

Boeing told the state last fall that it would not sign an &ldquoagreed order&rdquo with the Ecology department stipulating cleanup requirements for the vast majority of the site, records show.

Now the agency is poised to issue an enforcement order to compel the company to finish the job. A draft of that order, too, was recently released.

Unlike the typical &ldquoagreed&rdquo cleanup orders that the department signs with polluters, the &ldquoenforcement order&rdquo could be appealed by Boeing in superior court if it becomes final, said Ecology spokesman Larry Altose.

Some of the same toxins found at the Everett plant have been found at other Boeing sites in Washington.

Ecology recently released a feasibility study outlining cleanup options for Boeing&rsquos Auburn parts plant, where TCE has also tainted the groundwater.

An environmental group sued the company in 2018, alleging that it poisoned the Duwamish River by releasing contaminated stormwater runoff from its Military Delivery Center in Tukwila.

Under a February 2020 consent decree, Boeing committed to address the pollution by installing improved stormwater treatment facilities, expanding monitoring efforts and taking other steps. The settlement, with Puget Soundkeeper and Waste Action Project, also stipulated that Boeing contribute $750,000 to a King County project to create more salmon habitat.

The most expensive and time-consuming part of the Everett cleanup plan involves a process known as bioremediation, in which the company will inject nutrients into the soil to help natural bacteria break down the TCE. Under the proposal, Boeing would invest heavily in improvements to an existing system that pumps out contaminated groundwater, treats it and releases it.

The gulch groundwater cleanup is likely to take 30 to 40 years, possibly longer, said Paul Bianco, Ecology&rsquos site manager for the Boeing Everett plant.

In some areas of the plant, contaminants would stay confined beneath buildings for years or decades until the pollutants could be removed without disrupting operations.

The company has told the Ecology Department that it cannot commit to specific dates by which it will accomplish all the work needed to rid those parts of the site of pollution, records show.

In the meantime, monitoring would assure that the pollutants aren&rsquot spreading to the air or groundwater at levels that could be dangerous for people or the environment.

At more accessible parts of the site, polluted soils would be excavated until testing has proven that chemical concentrations have fallen below state cleanup levels. Most of that excavation work is expected to be done within a decade, Bianco said.

The excavated soil &mdash depending on its contamination levels &mdash would either be disposed of at a municipal waste landfill or at landfill licensed to accept dangerous waste, according to Ecology.

Boeing expects the &ldquonear-term cleanup work&rdquo to occur between 2022 and 2030, the company said in a draft checklist required under the state Environmental Policy Act.

Under a separate agreed order with the state, Boeing would also decontaminate a part of its Everett facility known as the Bomarc business park, off Airport Road on 94th Street SW.

The company has leased the underlying land from Snohomish County for decades and now subleases the building there to commercial tenants.

Boeing and Ecology have chosen to draft an agreed order for the Bomarc portion of the cleanup to allow for the building to be sold in the future, according to the department. In the event the company sells the property, it would still have access rights to complete the cleanup there, the draft order says.

The extent of the contamination

The &ldquochemicals of concern&rdquo targeted by the proposed cleanup plan vary widely across Boeing&rsquos property.

In some spots, pollutants have been found in the soil at concentrations more than 10 times their respective cleanup levels required by the Model Toxics Control Act.

A 2007 sample taken near an underground storage tank measured benzene, a component of petroleum products and a known carcinogen, 11 feet below ground surface at concentrations nearly 177 times the required cleanup level for that compound, according to a feasibility study.

Contaminants have also been found in vapor samples from soils beneath the concrete floors of some buildings.

TCE and an ozone-depleting refrigerant known as Freon 12 have been measured above screening levels in soils beneath the 777X spar assembly shop and the Bomarc business park, Bianco said. But inside those buildings, chemical concentrations in the air have never been detected in excess of cleanup levels, and future monitoring is planned to ensure the indoor air remains safe.

The full cost of the cleanup is not publicly known.

A 2018 supplementary feasibility study estimated that the groundwater cleanup would cost $11.7 million to $25.1 million.

Excavating or containing the contaminated soils across the site was expected to cost millions of dollars more, the first feasibility study shows.

But Bianco said those estimates are out of date. He deferred to the company for more accurate information.

Boeing declined to say what the cleanup is expected to cost. The spokesperson said the company is &ldquocommitted to a comprehensive cleanup&rdquo and doesn&rsquot &ldquohave anything else to add at this time.&rdquo

The dispute

While Boeing and Ecology are now in accord on much of the proposal, records show that they at first disagreed on what work should be required. Topics of contention following the initial feasibility study included the preferred remedy for the contaminated groundwater plume and associated monitoring requirements, according to written correspondence that is now posted online with the cleanup documents.

Some of those kinks were worked out during a three-year period from 2016 to 2019, when the company and the state engaged in &ldquoinformal,&rdquo then &ldquoformal,&rdquo dispute resolution.

But the company still takes issue with the agency&rsquos proposed &ldquopoint of compliance,&rdquo or the location on the Powder Mill Gulch site at which future sampling must show that TCE concentrations have fallen below the cleanup threshold, said Bianco, the Ecology Department&rsquos Boeing Everett cleanup site manager.

Though actions taken by the company have reduced TCE concentrations through much of the plume, the contaminated groundwater continues to move north, beyond Seaway Boulevard and into the Boulevard Bluffs neighborhood. It reaches properties including two business centers and a vacant lot owned by the city of Everett.

Ecology has determined the groundwater cleanup level must be achieved at the Boeing property line at Seaway Boulevard.

Boeing, however, has contended that meeting the standard at a location farther from the source of the pollution is sufficient to ensure protection, Bianco said.

The magic number

Also at issue is the actual cleanup level, or the maximum TCE concentration that can be present at the point of compliance for the cleanup to be completed.

Ecology has said that the groundwater should contain no more than 0.38 micrograms of TCE per liter, which is considered the surface water quality standard for the contaminant.

TCE above that level has been detected in the creek from its headwaters on Boeing&rsquos property to less than a half-mile from where the creek empties into Puget Sound.

The state agency set that threshold by considering laws and regulations that specify cleanup levels for TCE-contaminated media, such as soil or surface water. Ecology, as it typically does, chose the lowest of those cleanup levels, Bianco said in an email.

The drinking water standard for TCE is 4 micrograms per liter, or about 4 parts per billion. That equates to about a teaspoon in an Olympic-sized swimming pool, according to Ecology.

&ldquoWe maintain that since the groundwater emerges from the ground and flows into the creek, the cleanup is ultimately protecting surface water,&rdquo Bianco said. &ldquoTherefore, Ecology does have the authority &mdash and obligation &mdash to apply the surface water quality cleanup levels.&rdquo

But Boeing has argued that Ecology cannot legally apply surface water quality standards to groundwater.

The company has asserted that its preferred groundwater cleanup levels &ldquoare conservative considering that, under existing and likely future site use conditions, there are no risks to human or ecological receptors.&rdquo

&ldquoFor Powder Mill Gulch, Boeing also recognizes that to meet site cleanup standards, the cleanup levels for both surface water and groundwater must be met in their respective media, otherwise the groundwater remedial action will not be considered complete,&rdquo company Environmental Remediation Manager Katie Moxley told the state agency in a 2017 letter.

Dianne Riter, who lives near the cleanup site, said in an email to Ecology that she supports the more stringent cleanup standard in the gulch.

&ldquoThe health of people, animals and the environment is too important to decrease cleanup standards as Boeing has requested,&rdquo wrote Riter, the sole resident who submitted a comment on the plan as of Friday afternoon. &ldquoFor too many years, these hazardous substances have been in our neighborhood and likely leaching out into Port Gardner Bay and it&rsquos critical that they be cleaned up in a complete manner.&rdquo

TCE was one of the first chemicals to be targeted for a ban after Congress passed the revised Toxic Substances Control Act in 2016, but federal rules proposed by the EPA in President Barack Obama&rsquos final days were never implemented.

The EPA published a final risk assessment for TCE in November, determining that the chemical presented an &ldquounreasonable risk&rdquo to people in nearly all uses, including as a solvent used in degreasing. Environmental groups have criticized the assessment for understating the dangers, particularly when it comes to potential fetal heart defects.

The National Cancer Institute considers TCE a &ldquocancer-causing substance.&rdquo

A fact sheet published by the EPA in March 2016 says that TCE can also affect fetus development, irritate skin and the respiratory system and cause light-headedness, drowsiness and headaches.

&ldquoRepeated exposure to TCE has been associated with effects in the liver, kidneys, immune system, and central nervous system,&rdquo the fact sheet says.

The public can be exposed to TCE by breathing contaminated air or drinking contaminated water. People who work with the chemical can also absorb it through their skin, according to the cancer institute.

There are no water supply wells near the groundwater plume. One water well was found a half mile from the plume, but according to the city of Everett, the well is no longer in use, the cleanup plan says.

Surveys conducted by the Tulalip Tribes in 2013 reported that the lower reaches of Powder Mill Creek provide habitat for juvenile coho and chum salmon, according to cleanup documents. Cutthroat trout were also found there.

Culverts at Mukilteo Boulevard and other natural and man-made barriers now prevent salmon and other anadromous fish species from migrating or spawning in the contaminated portion of the creek. However, if those obstacles were removed, the southern stretch of the creek could be used by fish, the cleanup plan says.

A map of a plume of contaminated groundwater beneath Powder Mill Gulch on the north side of Boeing&rsquos Everett site. (Washington Department of Ecology)

The action taken

In the 2000s, the company agreed to take several measures to reduce the amount of polluted water reaching the creek after elevated PCB concentrations were discovered there. A detention basin outlet control structure was built, and PCB-contaminated sediment was removed from the headwaters of the creek.

The company also installed a system that involved heating the TCE source area to convert the liquid solvent into vapors, which were then captured and recovered.

In 2011, the company agreed to add 12 groundwater extraction wells to remove contaminants.

Under the cleanup proposal, the company would build onto that system. The updated version will have more wells and return treated water into the ground, instead of the creek, to flush more pollution toward the extraction wells.

The company has also made other efforts to remove soil elsewhere on the property that contains contaminants such as arsenic and lead.

Arsenic exceeds cleanup levels in groundwater at the site however, Ecology suspects the element occurs naturally there, as it does elsewhere in Washington&rsquos environment.

Boeing could pay if it doesn&rsquot comply with the cleanup plans.

Under state law, the state attorney general may initiate legal action to compel the company to complete the cleanup work or recover any costs spent by Ecology to investigate or remediate the site, the proposed cleanup orders say.

The company would be liable for up to three times the amount of money spent by the state, plus civil penalties up to $25,000 a day for each day it refuses to comply.

The cleanup documents are available for review online at ecology.wa.gov.

Ecology will respond to comments and questions when the comment period ends, said Altose, the department spokesman.

If the comments result in significant changes to the plan, the cleanup documents will be revised and posted again for the public to review.


Sadržaj

Do 1950-ih Uredi

Kompaniju je pod imenom B&W osnovao u Seattlu 15. jula 1916. William Edward Boeing, zajedno sa Georgeom Conradom Westerveltom, inženjerom u Američkoj mornarici. Ime je ubrzo promjenjeno u Pacific Aero Products, a zatim 1917. u "Boeing Airplane Company". William Edward Boeing je studirao na Yale univerzitetu i zatim provobitno radio u drvnoj industriji, gdje se obogatio, ali i stekao znanja o drvenim strukturama koja su se kasnije pokazala vrijednim pri projektovanju i sklapanju aviona.

1927. Boeing je osnovao i avio-kompaniju, nazvanu Boeing Air Transport, koja se zatim godinu dana kasnije ujedinila sa Pacific Air Transport i Beoing avionskom kompanijom u jedinstvenu korporaciju. Kompanija je 1929. promijenila ime u "United Aircraft And Transport Corporation" i kupila kompanije Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Standard Propeller Company i Chance Vought, te 1930. i National Air Transport. Međutim, kako je Zakon o avionskoj pošti SAD iz 1934. zabranio da ista korporacija kontroliše i avio-kompaniju i proizvođača aviona, United Aircraft Corporation se podijelio na tri manje kompanije, Boeing Airplane Company, Junajted erlajnz i United Airlines, prethodnika današnje firme United Technologies. U ishodu ovoga, Bill Boeing je prodao svoje dionice.

Ubrzo zatim, postignut je dogovor sa Pan American World Airwaysom da se razvije putnički "leteći brod" (tip vazduhoplova koji poleće i sleće na vodi) za prevoz putnika na transatlantskim linijama. Boeing 304 Clipper imao je svoj prvi let juna 1938. godine. Bio je to najveći putnički avion svog vremena, za 90 putnika na dnevnim ili 40 putnika na noćnim linijama. Godinu dana kasnije, započeli su i prvi redovni putnički letovi iz Sjedinjenih država za Veliku Britaniju. Ubrzo potom otvorene su i druge linije, tako da je Pan American letio Boeingom 314 ka odredištima širom svijeta.

1938. Boeing je završio i sa radom na Model 307 Stratoliner. Stratoliner je bio prvi avion sa kabinom sa održavanim pritiskom, koji je mogao letiti na visinama od čak 6.000 metara iznad većine vremenskih smetnji.

Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata, Boeing je proizveo ogroman broj bombardera. Mnogi od radnika bile su žene čiji su supruzi bili na frontu. Početkom marta 1944, proizvodnja je povećana do nivoa od 350 aviona mjesečno. Radi zaštite od napada iz vazduha, fabrike su bile prekrivene zelenilom i seoskim detaljima. Tokom ratnih godina, vodeće američke aviokompanije su sarađivale. Bombarder B-17, kojeg je dizajnirao Boeing, su također sklapali Lockheed Aircraft Corp. i Douglas Aircraft Co., dok su B-29 sklapale i Bell Aircraft Co. i Glenn L. Martin Co.

Kada je Drugi svjetski rat završen, glavnina narudžbina za bombardere su poništene i 70.000 Boeingovih radnika je ostalo bez posla. Kompanija je ciljala da se brzo oporavi prodajom Stratocruisera, luksuznog četvoromotornog putničkog aviona kojeg je razvio na osnovu vojnog aviona. Međutim, prodaja ovog modela nije išla kako je planirano i Boeing je morao potražiti druge mogućnosti da prevaziđe nastalo stanje. Kompanija je uspešno prodavala vojne avione prerađene za prevoz trupa i za tankovanje u letu.

1950-e Uredi

Sredinom 1950-tih godina tehnologija je značajno napredovala, otvarajući mogućnosti Boeingu da razvije i proizvodi potpuno nove proizvode. Jedan od prvih bili su vođeni projektili kratkog dometa za presretanje neprijateljskih letjelica. U to vrijeme, hladni rat je već postao stvarnost sa kojom se imalo živjeti, i Boeing je iskoristio svoju tehnologiju kratkodometnih projektila da razvije i izgradi i interkontinentalne projektile.

1958. godine, Boeing je počeo sa isporukama svog Boeinga 707, prvog američkog putničkog mlaznjaka, kao odgovor na britanski De Havilland Comet, francusku Sud Caravelle, i sovjetski Tupolev Tu-104, koji su činili prvu generaciju putničkih mlaznih aviona. B707, četvoromotorni avion za 156 putnika, učinio je Sjedinjene države vodećim proizvođačem putničkih mlaznjaka. Nekoliko godina kasnije, Boeing je proizveo i B720, varijantu modela 707 nešto veće brzine i kraćeg dometa. Za još nekoliko godina (1963.), Boeing uvodi i B727, putnički mlaznjak slične veličine, ali sa tri motora, i namjenjen linijama srednje dužine. Putnici, posade i avio-kompanije su vrlo brzo odlično prihvatili B727 kao komforan i pouzdan avion. Proizvodnja Boeinga 727 je obustavljena 1984, ali na prekretnici vijekova gotovo 1.300 ovih aviona je još uvek letilo u flotama avio-kompanija širom svijeta.

1960-e Uredi

1960. godine Boeing je kupio firmu Piasecki Helicopter i preoblikovao je u jedinicu Boeing Vertol. Dvo-rotorni CH-47 Chinook, kojeg je proizvodio Vertol, poletio je prvi put 1961. Ovaj helikopter izuzetne nosivosti i dan-danas je omiljeni "konj za vuču". 1964., Vertol je počeo i sa proizvodnjom helikoptera CH-46 Sea Knight.

1967. godine, Boeing uvodi još jedan avion za kratke i srednje linije, dvomotorni B737, do danas najprodavaniji putnički avion u historiji vazduhoplovstva. B737 se i danas proizvodi (i odlično prodaje), uz neprekidna unapređenja. Razvijeno je više verzija, uglavnom radi povećanja broja putnika i doleta.

Prvi 747-100 ugledao je svijetlo dana na ceremonijama kraj ogromne nove fabrike u Everett.u 1968. godine. Avion je prvi put poletio godinu dana kasnije, a prvi komercijalni let obavljen je 1970.

1970-e Uredi

Na početku 1970-tih, Boeing je suočen sa novom krizom. Program Apollo, u kojem je Boeing značajno učestvovao tokom prethodne decenije, bio je gotovo potpuno obustavljen, tako da je Boeing ponovo morao da nadomjesti prihode u jedinici putničkih aviona. U to vrijeme, međutim, i same avio-kompanije bile su u tako teškoj recesiji da Boeing nije zabilježio ni jednu jedinu narudžbu tokom više od godinu dana. Proizvodnja novog B747 Jumbo Jet, Boeingove nade za budućnost, kasnila je i koštala mnogo više nego što je provobitno predviđano. I onda je, povrh svega, 1971. godine, Kongres SAD] odlučio da prekine novčanu podršku razvoju nadzvučnog 2707, koji je trebao biti Boeingov (i američki) odgovor na britansko-francuski Concorde, što je primoralo kompaniju da obustavi projekat. Tako je kompanija morala da smanji broj zaposlenih, samo u oblasti Seattlea sa 80.000 skoro na polovinu. Prvi B747, četvoromotorni avion za duge linije, konačno je počeo sa komercijalnim letovima 1970. Sa svojom prepoznatljivom "grbom" na spratu i mjestom za 450 putnika, ovaj čuveni avion potpuno je promijenio način na koji su ljudi letili. Do 2001., Boeing je bio jedini proizvođač koji je nudio ovakav avion i isporučio ih je preko 1.400. (Airbus danas nudi A380 koji će, kada počne sa letovima, biti najveći putnički avion u saobraćaju.) B747 je neprekidno unapređivan kako bi držao korak sa tehnologijom, uz to su razvijane i sve veće verzije produžavanjem gornjeg sprata.

1980-e Uredi

Ekonomska situacija se počela popravljati 1983. godine i Boeing je sastavio svoj hiljaditi B737. Tokom slijedećih godina, putnički avioni i njihove vojne verzije postali su osnovna oprema avio-kompanija i vojnih vazduhoplovstava. Zajedno sa putničkim saobraćajem, rasla je i konkurencija, prije svega od novog evropskog proizvođača putničkih aviona, Airbusa. Boeing je počeo da nudi nove tipove aviona, i razvio dugački uskotrupni B757, veći, širokotrupni B767, i unapređene verzije B737. Važan projekat ovih godina bio je Space Shuttle, kojem je Boeing doprinjeo svojim iskustvom u oblasti kosmičkih raketa iz vremena Apolla. Boieng je u svemirskom programu učestvovao i sa drugim proizvodima, i bio je prvi ugovarač za Međunarodnu svemirsku stanicu. U isto vrijeme, počelo se i sa proizvodnjom nekoliko vojnih projekata, poput RAH-66 Comanche helikoptera, sistema za odbranu iz vazduha "Avenger" i nove generacije projektila kratkog dometa. Boing je veoma aktivno unapređivao postojeću i razvijao novu vojnu opremu.

1990-e Uredi

1994. godine, Boeing je uveo svoj najmoderniji putnički avion, dvomotorni B777, sa kapacitetom za 390 putnika, između B767 i B747. Dvomotorac sa najvećim doletom na svijetu, B777 je među avionima certifikovanim za letove preko okeana i nenaseljenih predjela (ETOPS), i prodaje se izuzetno uspješno. Ovaj avion, kojem tepaju nadimkom "tri sedmice", označio je značajnu prekretnicu i tako što je prvi u potpunosti dizajniran pomoću računara, tj. CAD tehnikama. Također sredinom 1990-tih, kompanija je razvila i novu, osvježenu i unapređenu verziju B737 porodice, poznatu kao "737 nove generacije", koja je postala najbrže prodavana vrsta B737 u istoriji. "737 Next-Generation" uključuje 737-600, -700, -800, -900 i od skora -900ER.

Boeing se 1996. godine spojio sa aeronautičkim i odbrambenim jedinicama Rockwell International Corp., koje su tako postale Boeingovom supsidijarnom kompanijom Boeing North American, Inc. Godinu dana kasnije, Boeing se spojio i sa McDonnell Douglas Corp., nakon čega je MD-95 primenovan u B717, a proizvodnja širokotrupnog MD-11 je obustavljena.

2000-e Uredi

U novije vreme Boeing je suočen sa sve konkurentnijim Airbusom, koji nudi solidnu komonalnost (slične kontrole) između svojih modela i najnoviju fly-by-wire tehnologiju. Počevši od nule 1970-tih, Airbus je svoju porodicu aviona doveo do tačke gdje mogu ponuditi avione u praktično svakoj kategoriji u kojoj ih nudi i Boeing. Zapravo, Airbus se sada uspješno takmiči i u tržištima u kojima je Boeing svojevremeno imao monopol, tako da su npr. niskobudžetne avio-kompanije, tradicionalne mušterije B737 modela, počele da se opredeljuju za A320, koji se i uopšteno prodaje bolje, kao i na tržištu veoma velikih aviona sa potpuno dvospratnim modelom A380. 747 je sa druge strane i žrtva zdrave prodaje samog Boeingovog modela serije 777-300.

Trenutno, Boeing uvodi četiri nova aviona, 787 Dreamliner’', 777-200LR izuzetno velikog doleta, 737-900ER i 747-8. 787 Dreamliner (prvobitno zvan 7E7) za srednje i duge linije, avion koji je 2004. godine preokrenuo Boeingov tržišni uspjeh, biće prvi avion u potpunosti izrađen od kompozitnih materijala, sa 20% manjom potrošnjom goriva od uporedivih modela koji danas lete, i brojnim novim pogodnostima za putnike (poput najvećih prozora do sada, brzog interneta, i poboljšane vlažnosti zraka u kabini). Boeing 777-200LR je putnički avion sa najvećim dometom na svijetu, prvi koji može letiti između dijametralno suprotnih tačaka na Zemlji sa komercijalno isplativom nosivošću. (777-200LR je već u fazi testiranja u letu i prvi će biti isporučeni ove godine.) 737-900ER, ranije zvan -900H, unapređuje postojeći model 737-900, koji ima ograničen dolet i (zbog sigurnosnih propisa) kapacitet, tako da je morao biti opreman u dvije klase, umjesto u konfiguraciji visoke gustine, neophodnoj niskobudžetnim i ostalim kompanijama. 737-900ER imaće dolet sličan uspješnom 737-800, uz više putničkih mjesta. 747-8 će biti efikasniji, nositi nešto više putnika i imati veći domet od 747-400ER putnička (-8I) i teretna (-8F) varijanta bit će 3.7, odnosno 5.5 m duže.

2004. godine, Boeing je obustavio proizvodnju modela 757 nakon nešto više od hiljadu proizvedenih, a posljednji primjerak isporučen je Shanghai Airlinesu iz Kine. Naprednije verzije 737 počele su se takmičiti sa starim dizajnom 757. Boeing je ubrzo zatim obustavio i proizvodnju modela 717, poslijednjeg nasljednika McDonnell-Douglas linije aviona, zbog slabe prodaje, a slična sudbina vrlo vjerovatno uskoro očekuje i 767, mada bi ovaj program mogao opstati ukoliko Boeing za svoj izvedeni model KC-767 dobije ugovor za nove tankere za Ratnu avijaciju SAD-a. Na taj način Boeing bi na tržištu putničkih aviona nudio 4 osnovne porodice aviona: 737, 787, 777 i 747-8.


Boeing C-73 - History



























Boeing 247D
United States &mdash twin-engine low-wing monoplane for mail and passenger carrying

Skytamer Archive Photos 1

[1933 Boeing 247D (CF-JRQ, c/n 1699) at the Canada Aviation Museum, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada]

Overview 2

  • Boeing 247
  • Role: Passenger airliner
  • Manufacturer: Boeing
  • First flight: February 8, 1933
  • Introduced: May 22, 1933
  • Primary user: Boeing Air Transport
  • Number built: 75

The Boeing Model 247 was an early United States airliner, considered the first such aircraft to fully incorporate advances such as all-metal (anodized aluminum) semi-monocoque construction, a fully cantilevered wing and retractable landing gear. Other advanced features included control surface trim tabs, an autopilot and deicing boots for the wings and tailplane. "Ordered off the drawing board", the 247 first flew on February 8, 1933 and entered service later that year. Subsequently, development in airliner design saw engines and airframes becoming larger, and four-engine designs emerged, but no significant changes to this basic formula appeared until cabin pressurization and high altitude flight were introduced in the early 1940s with the first pressurized airliner, the 307 Stratoliner.

Boeing had eclipsed other aviation manufacturers by introducing a host of aerodynamic and technical features into a commercial airliner. This advanced design which was a progression from earlier Monomail (Models 200, 221, 221A) and B-9 bomber designs, combined speed and safety. The Boeing 247 was faster than the U.S. premier fighter aircraft of its day, the Boeing P-12, which was an open-cockpit biplane. Yet its flight envelope included a rather docile 62 mph landing speed which precluded the need for flaps, and pilots learned that at speeds as low as 10 mph, the 247 could be taxied "tail high" for ease of ground handling.

In addition, the 247 was the first twin-engine passenger transport able to fly on one engine. With controllable pitch propellers (standard equipment on the 247D), the 247 could maintain 11,500 ft at maximum gross takeoff weight. Its combination of features set the standard for the Douglas DC-1 and other airliners before World War II. Originally planned as a 14-passenger airliner powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, the preliminary review of the design concept by United Air Lines' pilots had resulted in a re-design to a smaller, less capable design configuration. Nonetheless, the 247 was a remarkable achievement and was the company's showcase exhibit at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair.

The cockpit windshield (windscreen) of the first 247s was angled "forward" instead of the conventional aft sweep. This was the design solution (similar to that adopted by other contemporary aircraft that used a forward raked windscreen) to the problem of lighted control panel instruments reflecting off the windshield at night, but it turned out that the forward-sloping windshield would reflect ground lights instead, especially during landings, and it also increased drag slightly. By the introduction of the 247D, the windshield was sloped aft in the usual way, and the night-glare problem was resolved by installing an extension (the glarescreen) over the control panel.

Boeing considered safety features highly, building in structural strength as well as incorporating design elements that enhanced customer comfort and well-being, such as the thermostatically-controlled, air conditioned and sound-proof cabin. The crew included a pilot and co-pilot as well as a flight attendant who could tend after passenger needs. The main landing gear did not fully retract a portion of the wheels extended below the nacelles, typical of designs of the time, as a means of reducing structural damage in a wheels-up landing. The tailwheel was not retractable. While the Model 247 and 247A had speed-ring engine cowlings and fixed-pitch propellers, the Model 247D incorporated NACA cowlings and variable pitch propellers.

Operational History 2

As the 247 emerged from its test and development phase, the company further showcased its capabilities by entering a long-distance air race in 1934, the MacRobertson Race from England to Australia. During the 1930s, aircraft designs were often proven in air races and other aerial contests. A modified 247D was entered, flown by Col. Roscoe Turner and Clyde Pangborn. The 247, race number "57," was essentially a production model but all airliner furnishings were deleted to accommodate additional fuselage fuel tanks (eight in total). The MacRobertson Race attracted aircraft entries from all over the globe including prototypes as well as established production types with the grueling course considered an excellent proving ground as well as an opportunity to gain worldwide attention. Turner and Pangborn came in second place in the transport section (and third overall), behind the Boeing 247's eventual rival, the new Douglas DC-2.

Winner of the 1934 US Collier Trophy for excellence in aviation design, the first 247 production orders were earmarked for Boeing Air Transport. The 247 was capable of crossing the United States from east to west eight hours faster than their predecessors, such as the Ford Trimotor and Curtiss Condor. Entering service on May 22, 1933, a Boeing Air Transport 247D set a cross-country record pace of 19½ hours on its San Francisco to New York inaugural flight.

Due to the initial demand from U.S. air carriers, Boeing sold the first 60 Boeing 247s, an unprecedented $3.5 million order to its affiliated airline, Boeing Air Transport (part of the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, UATC), at a unit price of $65,000. TWA (Transcontinental & Western Air) also ordered the 247 but UATC declined the order, which resulted in TWA President Jack Frye setting out the requirements for a new airliner and funding Don Douglas to design and build the Douglas DC-1 prototype. Douglas eventually developed the design into the historic and enormously successful DC-3 line.

Although the Boeing design had been the first to enter series production, the 247 proved to have some serious design deficiencies. Air carriers considered its limited capacity a drawback since it only carried 10 passengers, in five rows with a seat on each side of the aisle, as well as a flight attendant. Compared to the more capacious DC-2 and later DC-3, the passenger count was too few to make it a commercially viable airliner. Another feature influencing passenger comfort was, the 247's main wing spar ran through the cabin area, so persons moving through the cabin had to make a large step over it. The Lockheed L-10 Electra had a similar configuration and while it was a more compact design, the Electra managed to carry the same number of passengers at a slightly better overall performance, and more importantly, at a lower cost-per-mile.

Seventy-five 247s were built by contrast, Douglas produced over 10,000 DC-3s, including wartime production of C-47, while the rival Lockheed Electra "family" was eventually to reach over 3,000 in its various civilian and military variants. Boeing Air Transport bought 60 examples, United Aircraft Corp. (10), four went to Lufthansa, and one a private owner in China. While the industry primarily standardized on Boeing's competitors, many of United's aircraft were later purchased by Western Air Express at "bargain basement prices".

The 247 remained in airline service until World War II, when several were converted into C-73 transports and trainers. No. 121 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) operated seven Model 247Ds as medium transports during the early part of the war. Some 247s were still flying in the late 1960s, converted either into cargo transports or personal business aircraft.

A number of specially modified variants included a Boeing 247Y appropriated from United for Air Corps use as a test aircraft fitted with two machine guns in the nose. The same installation later was fitted to a 247Y owned by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek this aircraft also featured a Colt .50 caliber machine gun in a flexible mount. A 247D purchased by the British Royal Air Force became a test mule for new equipment, featuring a nonstandard nose, new powerplants and non-retracting gear.

The Turner/Pangborn 247D still exists. Originally flown on September 5, 1934, it was leased from United Airlines for the 1934 MacRobertson Race and returned to United where it served in regular airline service until 1937. Subsequently, the 247D was sold to the Union Electric Company of St. Louis for use as an executive transport. The Air Safety Board purchased the aircraft in 1939 and it remained in use for 14 years before it was donated to the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. Displayed today with two sets of markings, the left side is marked as NR257Y, in Colonel Turner's 1934 MacRobertson Race colors, while the right side is painted in United Airlines livery, as NC13369.

Variants 2

  • Model 247: Twin-engined civil transport airliner. Initial production version.
  • 247A: Powered by new 625 hp P&W Wasp, on special order for Deutsch Luft-Hansa in 1934.
  • 247E: This designation was given to the first Boeing 247 aircraft, it was used to test a number improvements, that were later incorporated into the Boeing 247D.
  • 247D: Original one-off was a race aircraft designed for the McRobertson Race use of Hamilton Standard variable-pitch propellers allowed for a seven mph gain the 247D configuration incorporated in production series bearing the same name.
  • 247Y: Armed version, one exported to China, second used for trials.
  • C-73: Designation for Boeing 247D airliners "drafted" into military service in USAAF, 27 in total.

Operators 2

Civil Operators

  • Canada: Canadian Pacific Airlines
  • China: Private owner operated one aircraft.
  • Colombia: SCADTA operated 10 aircraft.
  • Germany: Lufthansa operated four aircraft.
  • United States: Boeing Air Transport (later United Air Lines) operated 60 aircraft. United Aircraft Corporation operated 10 aircraft. Western Airlines received some of ex-United Aircraft Corporation aircraft.

Military Operators

  • Canada: Royal Canadian Air Force
  • United Kingdom: Royal Air Force
  • United States: United States Army Air Corps

Survivors 2

  • c/n 1699, CF-JRQ: Exhibited in Canada Aviation Museum, Ottawa. Donated to the museum in 1967 by California Standard Oil of Calgary, Alberta.
  • c/n 1722, N18E: Exhibited in the National Museum of Science and Industry, Wroughton, UK
  • c/n 1729, N13347: Still airworthy, exhibited in the Museum of Flight Restoration Center, Paine Field, Snohomish County, Washington, USA.
  • c/n 1953, NC13369 / NR257Y: Exhibited in the Hall of Air Transportation at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC, USA, with United Air Lines colors and registration as NC13369 on its right fuselage and wing and as NR257Y with MacRobertson Race markings on its left side.

Boeing Model 247D Specifications 2

  • All-metal tapered cantilever structure, in five sections &mdask center-section, two outboard panels, and two removable wing-tips.
  • Outboard sections bolted to stubs outboard of engine nacelles.

Undercarriage

  • Retractable type, with Boeing oleo legs.
  • The wheels retract into the wing-stub and operate electrically with an auxiliary manual control.
  • Large low-pressure tires.
  • Boeing hydraulic brakes, with individual or simultaneous operation and locking device.
  • Full swiveling tail-wheel, with air-oleo shock-absorber.

Power Plant

  • Two 550 hp geared and supercharged Pratt & Whitney &ldquoWasp&rdquo air-cooled radial engines, with three-bladed Hamilton Standard controllable-pitch airscrews and N.A.C.A. ring cowls.
  • Fuel tanks in wing-stub on either side of fuselage carrying a total of 273 U.S. gallons (228 Imp. galls. = 1,033 L).
  • Petrol fed by engine-driven pump with auxiliary hand-pump.
  • Engine-driven dynamo and storage battery for lighting.
  • Pressure fire-extinguisher control by pilot, and portable hand-extinguisher.

Accommodation

  • Ten passengers, two pilots, stewardess, baggage and cargo.
  • Cabin 20 ft long and 6 ft high, with 10 passenger chairs and stewardess' seat.
  • Pilots compartment for two pilots.
  • 60 ft 3 cargo space in nose and 65 ft 3 in rear of the fuselage.
  • Windows of non-splinterable plate glass.
  • Thermostatically controlled heating-cooling system.
  • Visual intercommunication system.
  • Lavatory.
  • Cabin insulated against noise and temperature.
  • Span: 74 ft (22.6 m)
  • Length: 51 ft 4 in (16.25 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 1¾ in (3.7 m)
  • wing area: 836.13 ft 2 (76.6 m 2 )

Weights and Loadings

  • Weight empty: 8,940 lb (4,059 kg)
  • Useful load: 4,710 lb (2,138 kg)
  • Payload: 2,582 lb (1,172 kg)
  • Weight loaded: 13,650 lb (6,197 kg)
  • Wing loading: 16.3 lb/ft 2 (79.5 kg/m 2 )
  • Power loading: 12.4 lb/hp (5.63 kg/hp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 202 mph (324 km/h)
  • Cruising speed: 189 mph (302.4 km/h)
  • Landing speed: 61 mph (98 km/h)
  • Initial rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min (328 m/min)
  • Climb in 10 minutes: 11,000 feet (3,350 m)
  • Service ceiling: 25,400 feet (7,750 m)
  • Absolute ceiling: 27,200 feet (8,296 m)
  • Absolute ceiling on one engine (with full load): 11,500 feet (3,508 m)
  1. Shupek, John. Photos via The Skytamer Archive, copyright © 2003 Skytamer Images. All Rights Reserved
  2. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Boeing 247
  3. Grey, C. G. and Leonard Bridgman. &ldquoThe Boeing 247-D&rdquo. &ldquoJane's all the World's Aircraft 1936&rdquo. London: Sampson Low, Marston & company, Ltd., 1936, p. 257c-258c. Print.

Copyright © 1998-2020 (Our 22 nd Year) Skytamer Images, Whittier, California
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Boeing 737 timeline: From the early days to the grounding of the 737 Max after 2 fatal crashes that killed 346 people 5 months apart

The Boeing 737 has been in the news a lot lately, since two fatal crashes involving the latest model of the plane, the 737 Max.

But even though the Max has been grounded for six months, as Boeing works to fix a dangerous flaw in the troubled jet, the sky has continued to be crisscrossed by older models of the 737.

In fact, if you've taken a domestic commercial flight in the past 50 years — including the last six months — there's a very good chance you were on a 737 of some sort.

That's because Boeing has sold a ton of them. As of August 2019, the planemaker has taken orders for 15,155 of them since 1965, when the jetliner was first unveiled. It delivered the 10,000th of these in April 2018, a (currently-grounded) 737 Max 8 to Southwest Airlines.

Despite the missteps and tragic consequences surrounding the Max's initial design, the larger 737 family has proved itself as a faithful workhorse for airlines around the world, ranging from long-haul carriers like Delta that include the plane as a small part of its fleet, to low-cost airlines like Ryanair, which uses 737s for its entire fleet.

Although the 737 looks likely to fly on for years to come, well past its 70th birthday, Boeing will need to prove to its customers that it's fixed the flawed Max and that it's learned enough from the episode to prevent it from ever happening again. The rival Airbus A320 family is nipping at its heels, with 14,789 orders through August. With Boeing failing to sell a single Max for more than five months, as customers wait to see how the company fixes the plane, the need to restore consumer confidence is urgent.

Here's a closer look at the incredible 54-year history of the Boeing 737.


A freighter demonstrator

In 2018, Boeing began working with a 777F to test new technologies. Owned by FedEx Express, the 777F undertook a total of 37 projects to improve efficiencies and reduce noise.

Among the achievements of the 777F were testing out Surface Operations Collision Awareness System (SOCAS), which uses radar and optical sensors on the airplane to detect other objects, such as ground vehicles and buildings. It also tested out FLYHT Aerospace Solutions’ Automated Flight Information Reporting System (AFIRS), a tracking, distress and data streaming system that uses flight data recorders.

With an eye always on sustainable fuels, Boeing conducted many of the flights using 100% renewable aviation fuel. This was the first time a completely sustainable fuel had been used in a commercial aircraft.


Boeing C-73 - History

波音公司(英語: The Boeing Company )是美國一家開發、生產及销售固定翼飛機、旋翼机、运载火箭、导弹和人造卫星等產品,為世界最大的航天航空器製造商。於1997年併購麥克唐納-道格拉斯後,現在為美國境內唯一製造民航用廣體客機的公司,與歐洲空中巴士公司同為世界僅有的兩家大型民航機製造商,彼此瓜分市場。同時是全球第二大國防承包商(據2018年收入資料), [3] 還是美國第一大出口商(按美元計算)。 [4] 波音股票屬於道瓊工業平均指數。它也提供租赁及产品售后服务。波音公司總部設於伊利諾州芝加哥。

創業初期 编辑

1916年7月1日,波音由威廉·爱德華·波音以及美國海軍技師喬治·康拉德·韋斯特維爾特於美國西雅圖共同創立。剛開始,公司名字取自兩人姓氏開頭字母組合「B&W」。B&W(藍色比爾)的第一架飛機為搭載雙浮筒的水上飛機,不過這個公司名稱很快地就被改為Pacific Aero Products。接著在1917年時公司名稱再度改名,取為「波音飛機公司(Boeing Airplane Company)」。由於當時正值第一次世界大戰,美國海軍向波音飛機公司採購700架搭載雙浮筒、雙翼單引擎的C型教練機,奠定波音在飛機製造商的地位。

在第一次世界大戰結束後,軍用飛機已無更大的需求,民航業仍未開始發展,當時的美國境內主要使用飛機的事業僅只有郵政業務。因此波音公司使用C型機的最終版本C-700,在美國西雅圖與加拿大溫哥華之間,開展世界首次的國際郵務事業。波音的郵政部門BOEING AIR TRANSPORT業務需求逐漸擴大,飛機也開發出40A型等更現代化的飛機來使用。

大戰期間 编辑

1923年,美國陸軍與海軍分別採購戰鬥機P12以及F4B,購買該系列總計586架。波音也從郵務飛機開始發展載客用民航機,於1933年計畫研發可搭載十二人的小型雙螺旋槳飛機波音247。當時大部分的飛機機翼為帆布鋪成,且具有固定起落架的雙翼機;但247為機身全為鐵金屬製、低單翼,且起落架可完全收入機腹,巡航速度亦達到每小時300公里的新飛機,美國的航空公司都爭相引進。 1929年,波音與引擎製造商普惠公司等公司設立從製造到營運皆一手包辦的大型企業「聯合飛機與空運公司(United Aircraft and Transport Corporation)」。

第二次世界大戰間 编辑

第二次世界大戰後 编辑

大型噴射機的開發 编辑

波音為了秘密研發這架噴射機,將此案裝作為C-97的改良機種。而將這件第80號的開發案,取名為「Dash 80(波音367-80)」,並開始製作試作機。1954年5月,Dash 80下線,並在同年7月完成初次飛行。在該年5月,美國空軍發表新型加油機以及運輸機的需求,當時美國重要的飛機製造商道格拉斯公司和洛克希德公司都參與投標,但波音這架367-80已經大抵上完成,壓倒性的優勢使得軍方採用波音的提案。波音便以此架飛機為基礎,研發出KC-135空中加油機,該年10月便已生產29架。


How Has Boeing’s Logo Changed Over Time?

Initially, Boeing’s logo was the letters of its name arranged in a vertical manner while being flanked by a pair of wings. As a result, there are some people who have compared it to a winged totem pole. In fact, there are some who have outright suggested that it was based on totem poles, which is not particularly unbelievable. After all, while totem poles have often been used by people as an element of a generic Native American culture that never actually existed anywhere, they were actually a cultural practice of the Native American peoples who inhabited the northwestern coast of the continent. In other words, Boeing was situated in a region home to Native American peoples who created totem poles, meaning that it is not impossible for said peoples to have been a source of inspiration for its own logo.

Regardless, Boeing saw another upsurge in its production numbers during World War Two, when it was one of the airplane manufacturers responsible for churning out airplanes for the war effort. However, it was once again affected by the end of the war, though this time, it managed to make a smoother transition into making commercial airplanes under its new leadership. Moreover, it was under this new leadership that Boeing acquired its new logo, which happened to be a simple and straightforward statement of its name. Of course, the logo saw some minor changes over the course of its use, but for the most part, it remained what it was, which might have been simple in nature but nonetheless made the right impression on countless occasions.

It wasn’t until 1997 that Boeing picked up its current logo. What happened then was a merger between Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. As a result of said merger, the Boeing logo was combined with the McDonnell Douglas logo, which was a sphere with a ring around it. Something that resulted in the current Boeing logo that has been symbolic of one of the most prominent airplane manufacturers that can be found on the entire planet. On the whole, while the Boeing logo is much-changed from how it started out, it retains something of that same uncomplicated nature, which enables it to make its point in a simple and straightforward manner.